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2012-07-30 14:31:37
psu biol110 test4

biol 110 test 4
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  1. If NAD+ were to suddenly become unavailable, what would happen to cellular respiration?
    The Krebs cycle AND Glycolysis would stop because NAD is required
  2. This energy is needed to break bonds in the reactant molecules, then even more energy is released in an exergonic reaction when a final product molecule forms
    activation energy
  3. enzymes do not add energy; instead they _____________ by lowering the activation energy necessary
    hasten reactions
  4. _______ fit into the active sites of an enzyme where it is held to promote breaking chemical bonds
  5. __________ which are not themselves catalysts but are requred for normal catalytic functioning
  6. a reaction's end product inhibit the reaction itself by halting it when a certain amount of product has accumulated
    feedback inhibition
  7. The next two questions are based on the following information: A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X-->Y-->Z-->A. Product "A" binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. In this example, substance "X" is a(n) _______________.
  8. an enzyme that changes shape when an inhibitor or an activator binds to an allosteric site that is separate from its active site
    allosteric enzyme
  9. which organelle is rubisco found in the cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes?
  10. In which of the environments listed below would a non-photosynthetic facultative anaerobe (an organism that can use either aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration/fermentation) produce the most ATP for one molecule of glucose?
    leaves situatioed close to the top of a leaf pile
  11. Which component of cellular respiration takes place within the inner membrane of the mitochondrion?
    the electron transport chain
  12. What component of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrial matrix?
    the Krebs cycle
  13. circular DNA and binary fission is characteristic of ___________
  14. AMP will accumulate, stimulating _______ (an allosteric enzyme),which increases the rate of glycolysis
  15. cycle that completes the metabolic break down of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide (mitochondria of eukaryotes, cytosol of prokaryotes)
    Kreb's cycle
  16. serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration, this is the splitting of glucose into pyruvate
  17. It is thought that _______ evolved from prokaryotes that inhabited the cells of other larger prokaryotes. This scenario likely originated as an endosymbiosis, in which one organism began living within the body of another.
  18. You look at a cell under the microscope and notice that it has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. It is a ____________
  19. Which molecule is synthesized in the nucleolus?
    ribosomal RNA
  20. The surface of the rough endoplasmic is studded with _________ for protein synthesis
  21. within the golgi apparatus, carbohydrates are added to proteins in a process known as ___________
  22. prokaryotic cells have ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria? T/F
  23. breakdown of dead cell or protein is done by _______________-
    lysosomes (NO synthesis)
  24. the primary storage organelles in the Eukaryotic cell?
  25. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells
    prokaryotes have simple or nonexistant endomembrane systems and nucleoids
  26. it enters drinking water via the feces of an infected individual, and then enters the gut of another host through the mouth. This is what?
  27. tsetse flies are intermediate hosts of _______________
  28. The dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates are all considered members of Kingdom _______ because they all have a __________.
    Alveolata, small alveoli cavity
  29. is connected with killing fish and affecting people with neurotoxins. they are called ___________
  30. Plasmodium is carried by mosquitos and kills someone every 30 seconds. This disease is commonly called
  31. slime mold have a convergent evolution with ______________
  32. the term for "having several distinct ancestors"
  33. Which group in the kingdom Alveolata is involved in reef building, causes red tide, bioluminesces, and feeds on fish?
  34. A protist that has an apical cluster of microtubules and organelles, is parasitic, and has a sporozoite stage as a component of its life cycle would likely be
    a slime mold
  35. Giardia is a parasite diplomonad, a ________ is a parabasalid that lives in the guts of termites
  36. Kingdom Euglenozoa: these are primarily photosynthetic: _________________ and store surplus carbohydrates as paramylum
  37. African sleeping sickness is caused by
  38. small cavities enclosed in membranes that hug the internal cell surface
  39. phytoplankton are also known under the term D___________ and some other types build corral reefs
  40. malaria is caused by an ________________, that uses its apical complex to destroy host cells
  41. Plants can be grown experimentally without light. What key supplemental ingredient is needed for this to occur?
  42. What is the source of electrons in the electron transport chains of photosynthesis?
  43. During photosynthesis, the energy used to pump protons comes from _____, whereas in cellular respiration it comes from ______.
    light, NADH/FADH2
  44. oxidizes water and supplies electrons for the primary electron acceptor: photosystem _____
  45. NADPH is produced at the end of the ________
    zscheme electron transport (photosystem I and II)
  46. the process generating ATP from ADP by means of proton motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
  47. Compare the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle. Which molecules are common to both cycles?
    carbon dioxide and ATP
  48. The first phase in the Calvin cycle binds one molecule of ______________ to one molecule of ______________.
    CO2 , Ribulose biphosphate
  49. The Calvin cycle can best be described as the ______________ reactions of photosynthesis.
    nonlight dependent because they do not require direct sunlight
  50. The Calvin cycle occurs in chloroplasts because it is interdependent on ___________
    light reactions
  51. the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
    Calvin Cycle!!
  52. In the case of _________, the input molecules are carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH. the output molecules are sugar, ADP and NADP+
    Calvin cycle
  53. most abundant protein on Earth
  54. A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intcrmediate in glycolysis. it regenerates to RuBP
  55. the electron transport drives the pump that pumps protons H across the membrane-- proton H gradient is harnessed by ATP synthase to make ATP
  56. CO2 is ______________ in photosynthesis
  57. Light reactions harvest light for energy + ATP, ________ reactions expend energy and fix carbon using ATP and NADH
    • dark
    • in light acidification, (more H protons) in the inner membrane... there is _______ pH in the lumen
    • lower
  58. if its not green, it can NOT CO2 fix anything!!
  59. pH is higher in the __________ of mitochondria
    matrix -- meaning inner membrane is acidic! low pH
  60. NAD is required in cellular respiration for : ________ and _____________
    Glycolysis ; the Kreb's Cycle
  61. __________ are carbohydrates that function as agents capable of changing the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction
  62. __________ allow molecules to react during metabolism by lowering the activation energy
  63. _________ regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or other protein by binding an effector molecule at the protein's _______ site (that is, a site other than the protein's active site)
  64. __________________, where a reaction's end products inhibit the reaction itself by halting it when a certain amount of product has accumulated
    feedback inhibition
  65. endothermic reactions create a ___________ delta G (ie. the reduction of CO2) AKA endergonic
  66. exothermic reactions create a ________ delta G AKA exergonic
  67. ________ and _________ are produced by the Kreb's cycle to transfer energy to the electron transport chain?
    FADH2 ; NADH
  68. an exergonic reaction would always be ____________
  69. Glycolysis is thought to be one of the most ancient cellular processes because it occurs in _______ and _________
    prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  70. Glucose is not essential to cells that undergo cellular respiration. In fact, other molecules can be used because other molecules can enter via the _____ pathway or the _______ cycle
    gycolytic ; Kreb's
  71. Mitochondria replicate by ________ and have _____ DNA
    binnary fission, circular
  72. Which component of cellular respiration takes place within the inner membrane of the mitochondrion?
    the electron transport chain
  73. Rank the three major cytoskeletal components from largest to smallest (microT, intermediate f., microF)
    (L)microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments (s)
  74. A cell with defective lysosomes would likely be unable to ________________.
    break down digested proteins
  75. glycosylation, where carbohydrates are added to proteins, takes place in the _____________
    golgi apparatus
  76. The cell ________ is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope
  77. The most notable function of the nucleus is to store the __________ within every eukaryotic cell
    major source of genetic material
  78. Protein targeting and processing takes place in a network of membrane-bound chambers called the ______________
    endomembrane system //endoplasmic reticulum
  79. The __________ endoplasmic reticulum plays a major role in synthesizing lipids and in degrading toxins
  80. The ________ endoplasmic reticulum houses ribosomes on its surface, which is where many of the proteins targeted for export are synthesized
  81. The smallest cytoskeletal fibers are ________________, made of polymerized subunits of the globular protein actin, which are strung together like beads on a string. Microfilaments play a critical role in cell motility
  82. ____________ play an important role in supporting cell structures and anchoring organelles in the correct position within the cell. they are relatively static unlike the other 2
    intermediate filaments
  83. ____________ are actually hollow tubes consisting of rows of paired tubulin molecules. _________ are very important to major cellular events (e.g., mitosis) and they also have a major structural role