Carbohydrate Chemistry and Digestion

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geraldkristofferboy
ID:
164470
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Carbohydrate Chemistry and Digestion
Updated:
2012-07-30 18:15:50
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Biochemistry 2nd Long
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Carbohydrate Chemistry and Digestion
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  1. most basic unit of biologically important carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  2. bonds between 2 monosaccharide
    glycosidic bonds
  3. two monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
    disaccharide
  4. many monosaccharide units formed by several kinds of glycosidic bonds; functions as storage for energy
    polysaccharide
  5. sodium independent glucose transporters
    GLUT
  6. sodium-monosaccharide cotransporter
    SGLT1
  7. glucose transporter that facilitates uptake of all monosaccharides from lumen into enterocytes as well as their release from enterocytes to the blood
    GLUT2
  8. glucose transporter located at the contralumenal side; spcifically absorbs fructose
    GLUT5
  9. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: amylose
    exo-1,4-alpha glucosidase(glucoamylase); alpha-(1->4) glucose
  10. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: isomaltose and alpha-dextrin
    oligo-1,6-glucosidase(maltase); alpha(1->6)glucose
  11. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: maltose and maltriose
    alpha-glucosidase(maltase); alpha(1->4)glucose
  12. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: sucrose
    sucrose-alpha-glucosidase(sucrose); alpha(1->2)glucose
  13. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: trehalose
    alpha, alpha trehalase; alpha(1->1) glucose
  14. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: glucosylceramide
    beta-glucosidase; beta-glucose
  15. give enzyme and bond cleavage specificity: lactose
    beta-galactosidase(lactase); beta-galactose
  16. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT1
    ubiquitous; SLC2A1; basal glucose uptake
  17. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT2
    liver, pancreatic islets, interstine; SLC2A2; removal of excess glucose from blood(liver); regulation of insulin release(pancreas)
  18. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT3
    brain; SLC2A3;basal glucose uptake
  19. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT4
    muscle, fat, heart; SLC2A4; activity increased by insulin
  20. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT5
    intestine, testis, kidney, sperm; SLC2A5; primarily fructose transport
  21. Give tissue location gene and role: GLUT6
    spleen, leukocytes, brain; SLC2A6; possibly no transporter function
  22. non-superimposable mirror images
    enantiomers
  23. sugars that differ in configuration at only one carbon
    epimers
  24. contains one or more assymetric carbon atoms that occurs in optically active isometric forms
    chirality
  25. contains carbonyl carbon at te terminal portion of the sugar
    aldose
  26. contains a carbonly carbon at any other point in the sugar
    ketose
  27. formula used to illustrate 3D structure of the straight-chain sugar
    fischer projection
  28. shows the stereochemistry of the cyclic structure formed when the carbonyl carbon of C1 forms a covalent bond with the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of C4(pentoses) or C5(hexoses) of the same sugar
    haworth projection
  29. epimer of glucose that differs at C2
    mannose
  30. epimer of glucose that differs at C4
    galactose
  31. epimer of glucose with carbonyl group at C2
    fructose
  32. formed when an -OH of one monosaccharide condenses with the anomeric carbon of another monosaccharide; with elimination of H2O
    glycosidic bond
  33. galactose + glucose
    beta1->4 glycosidic linkage
    lactose
  34. glucose + fructose
    alpha1->beta2
    a non-reducing sugar
    sucrose
  35. sugars that lack free anomeric carbon
    non-reducing sugar
  36. alpha1->4 glycosidic linkages between glucose
    amylose
  37. alpha1->4 glycosidic linkages and alpha1->6 glycosidic linkages for every 24-30 glucose units
    amylopectin
  38. glucose homopolysaccharide of glucose(beta1->4) glycosidic linkages
    cellulose
  39. glucose(alpha1->4) glycosidic linkages and glucose(alpha1->6) glycosidic linkages for every 8-12 glucose units
    glycogen

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