Skeletal & Immune
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What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system?
1. Protection & support - skeletal system protects vital organs (brain, spinal cord, etc)
2. Movement (in conj with muscular system) - muscles use bones as levers
3. Maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis - Bones are used as a source or storage form of calcium, depending on Ca2+ levels in plasma
4. Formation of blood cells - bone marrow is where blood cells are made
Does cartilage contain blood or lymph vessels?
What is the embryonic skeleton made of?
Describe components of axial (3) skeleton vs. appendicular skeleton (4)?
Axial: skull, vertebrae column (backbone), and rib cage
Appendicular: arm and leg bones, pelvic and pectoral girdles.
Name 3 maor parts of macroscopic bone:
- 1. Diaphysis - long part
- 2. Epiphysis - rounded part
- 3. Epiphyseal plate - site of longitudinal bone growth. (endochondral ossification)
What's the difference between red marrow and yellow marrow?
Red marrow - contains stem cells for blood/immune cells.
Yellow marrow - stores fat
What ions are absorbed and resorped into the blood?
What hormone increases plasma calcium levels? And what hormone decreases plasma calcium levels?
Calcium and phosphate.
PTH increases plasma calcium cells (activates bone resorption; osteoclasts)
Calcitonin lowers plasma calcium levels by inhibiting calcium release from bones.
What regulates osteoclasts? Osteoblasts?
PTH regulates osteoblasts which regulate osteoclasts
What are 3 types of joints?
Immovable, partly movable(two vertebrae of spinal column) and synovial
What type of pairs are muscles found in?
antagonistic (one contracts while the other relaxes)
What cells are involved with the specific immune response?
B cell response - humoral response (production of antibodies)
T cell response - cellular response; involves direct action of T cells
Where do T cells mature?
What are plasma cells?
Plasma cells are specialized B cells that produce & secrete antibodies!
What is the structure of the antibody? Where do they bind to antigens?
Two heavy chains joined via disulfide bridges to two light chains.
Two ends: constant region and variable region (where antibodies bind to antigens)
What is an epitope? Examples (2)?
Epitope - the specific part of the antigen that is recognized by the immune system (i.e. bacterial cell wall protein or viral coat protein).
What is the difference between active immunity and passive immunity?
Active immunity - development of antibodies in response to antigen exposure (i.e. vaccination --> artificially acquired immunity)
Passive immunity - transfer of pre-formed antibodies (during pregnancy; antibodies passed from mother to fetus via placenta = naturally acquired immunity).
Active immunity produces memory cells & passive immunity lasts only as long as the antibodies remain in the bloodstream.
How do the humoral response and cellular response differ in terms of who they're directed against?
Cellular response is directed against pathogens that have entered body cells
Humoral response is directed against free-floating antigens
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