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What are the four training variables, and how are they related?
- F = frequency
- I = intensity
- T = time
- T = type
The variables work together to determine overall impact/benefits of physical activity. If you want maintenance of status, increasing one variable would lead to decreasing another, but if you want to improve health then you would need to gradually increase multiple variables.
What is the principle of overload?
You must push or stress an area beyond normal/resting capacity in order to improve fitness
What is the principle of progression?
Improving fitness requires progressive increase in the training variables (FITT)
What is the specificity of training principle?
Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) = you need to practice the specific activity or movement you want to improve, so runners must practice running, cyclists must practice cycling, gymnasts must practice gymastic moves
What is the reversibility principle?
The body deconditions without training or with lowered workload, performance decreases; aerobic/cardiorespiratory fitness decreases after 2-3 weeks, muscular fitness after 2-3 months
What is the principle of overtraining?
The body needs to rest to recover and avoid overuse injuries; overtraining can happen if progression is too fast, it helps to vary activities and avoid all high-impact activities; instructors shouldn't teach more than two classes per day.
What are the health-related components of physical fitness?
- Cardiorespiratory fitness
- Muscular strength & endurance
- Body composition
What are the skill-related components of physical fitness?
- Reaction time
What are the recommendations from the Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health/2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans?
- Some activity is better than nothing, you'll get some health benefits with any level of activity
- For substantial health benefits, adults need 150 minutes/week of moderate activity or 75 minutes/week of intense activity; aerobic activity should be a minimum of 10-minutes each time
- For extensive benefits, adults need 300 minutes/week of moderate activity or 150 minutes/week of intense activity (or a mix of the two); spreading out activity over multiple days is good
- Strength trainings of all major muscle groups at least twice per week is very important
What does BMI stand for and what measurement constitutes an individual to be defined as obese?
- BMI = body mass index, a proxy of body fat based on height and weight
- 25+ = overweight
- 30+ = obese
Professional responsibilities may include what seven items?
- Liability coverage
- CPR/First aid
- Pre-exercise screening (facility usually does this)
- Medical clearance/testing
- Environmental monitoring
- Emergency response plan
Physical activity readiness questionnaire, recommended by the ACSM as the minimum for pre-exercise participation screening
Define high-risk participants and list requirements for medical clearance.
- One or more symptoms/signs of cardiovascular disease or diagnosis of condition
- Requires exam from doctor and clearance, exercise testing before moderate to vigorous activity
Define moderate-risk participants and list requirements for medical clearance.
- Around two CVD risk factors, no signs or symptoms or diagnosis of condition
- Requires exam and medical clearance before vigorous exercise
Define low-risk participants and list requirements for medical clearance.
- Zero or one CVD risk factor present but no signs/symptoms or diagnosis of condition
- No medical clearance needed
What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)?
- High blood pressure
- High serum cholesterol
- Family history of CVD
- Physical inactivity
What are the exercise danger signs that indicate a participant should stop exercise and the instructor should assess need for emergency response? Name 10.
- Nausea or vomiting
- Tightness or pain in jaw/chest/neck/arm
- Loss of muscle control
- Severe breathlessness without recovery
- Allergic reactions
- Blurred vision
- Acute illness
- Mental confusion
- Cyanosis (skin turns blue)
- Acute musculoskeletal injury
What are five signs or participant complaints that indicate exercise should be modified or stopped (without emergency response)?
- Labored breathing
- Musculoskeletal pain
- Excessive heart rate elevation
- Unusual redness, evidence of strain
- Lack of proper body control
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medications on exercise response?
Some medications can elicit responses similar to the danger signs, such as heart rate elevation, although some medications can impede heart rate elevation.
List six symptoms of overtraining.
- Overuse/stress injuries
- Elevated resting heart rate
- Slowery recovery of heart rate
- Reduced strength performance
- Constant soreness from motion
List six AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining.
- Vary class type and intensity to alter localized stresses
- Limit number of high impact/advanced level classes (maximum of 2 per day, 8-12 per week)
- Always warm up and cool down
- Limit active demonstration
- Decrease teaching schedule as needed
- Eat nutritiously with adequate calories, water, carbs, and protein
- Correct muscle imbalances
AFAA recommends what for hydration and rehydration?
- Drink 8-12 ounces of water before exercise
- Monitor hydration through urine and body weight
- Drink 2 cups of water for every pound lost during exercise
- Pre-hydrate over hours
- Sodium helps retain fluids
- During an exercise session, you should lose no more than 2% of body weight
- Drinks with electrolytes can help maintain performance
- Consuming normal food/drink after exercise is good, make sure electrolytes are replenished
Describe appropriate exercise attire, according to AFAA.
breathable, comfortable and allows movement, good shoes
According to AFAA, a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?
Instructors should evaluate an exercise from which two viewpoints?
- Is an exercise effective?
- What are the potential risks?
What are the AFAA 5 Questions?
- What is the purpose of this exercise?
- Are you doing that effectively?
- Does the exercise create any safety concerns?
- Can you maintain proper alignment and form for the duration of the exercise?
- For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
List 14 exercises that are not recommended for a group exercise class and their appropriate modifications.
- sustained unsupported forward spinal flexion -- support with hands on knees, flat back
- sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion -- one hand on hip
- repetitive/weighted deep knee bends -- don't go below a right angle, hands on hips
- bouncy toe touches -- no bounce or raised toe calf stretch
- rapid head circles -- slowly, or just ear to shoulder stretch
- full plough -- tuck, grab legs behind knees
- full cobra -- partial, keep forearms on the ground
- hurdler's stretch -- bent leg in front instead of behind
- windmills -- keep hand on opposite knee for support
- supine double leg straight lifts without stabilization -- bend one knee
- prone double leg/arm lifts - opposite arm and leg
- painful forced splits -- modified
- weight-bearing pivots on unforgiving surfaces -- smaller steps, marches
- plyometric moves from elevated surface -- do on the floor
List 10 basic postures used in group exercise and an important alignment cue for each position.
- standing -- toes and knees in the same direction, pelvis neutral
- squats -- knees don't pass toes, hips and shoulders square to front
- bent over -- from hips, use back and abs to stabilize; from spine, use hands to stabilize
- seated -- toes and knees same direction, spine neutral
- supine -- neutral spine, engage abs, may need to bend knee(s)
- prone -- face down or side, engage back and abs
- side lying -- stack hips and shoulders, rest head on bottom arm to keep neck aligned
- kneeling -- keep spine neutral, front knee less than 90 degrees
- hands and knees -- shoulders above hands, neck neutral
- moving -- all of the above, control range of motion
AFAA recommends that every group exercise class include:
- pre-class announcements
- body of workout
- post-exercise cool-down/stretch
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper warm-up.
- Definition = preparation period for a workout
- Purpose = increase body temperature and blood flow
- Duration = 8-12 minutes
List and describe the two common warm-up methods and discuss when the addition of prepatory stretches may be appropriate.
- movement rehearsal
- limbering/dynamic stretches
- light stretching can be added depending on context and environment, but don't hold more than 15 seconds
List several special considerations for a warm-up.
- intensity and impact
- speed and control
- range of motion
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper cardiorespiratory training.
- Definition = continuous and rhythmic aerobic activities targeting the large muscle groups
- Purpose = improve heart, circulation, and pulmonary systems
- Duration = 20-45 minutes
List and describe four common cardiorespiratory training methods.
- Continuous/steady-state = intensity gradually increases, stays high for the majority of the time, then gradually decreases
- Interval = timed periods of high intensity followed by lower intensity active recovery, may go above the target heart rate reserve to anaerobic levels
- Intermittent = variable intensity/spontaneous, less structured than interval but similar change in intensity level, more random
- Circuit = timed bouts of activities in a sequential manner, can be cardio, strength training, or both
List several special considerations for cardiorespiratory training.
- monitor intensity
- music speed
- range of motion
- repetitive stress issues
- cardio cooldown
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper muscular strength and endurance training.
- Definition = work individual or groups of muscles against resistance to the point of fatigue
- Purpose = increases performance of everyday activities, stronger bones, increased muscle mass, increased metabolism
- Duration = 45-60 minutes, may be 15-20 if part of a class
List and describe four common muscular strength and endurance training methods.
- Muscle isolation = use primary movement (joint action) to work specific muscle group, such as bicep curl, delt raise
- Multi-joint/multi-muscle = several muscle groups (squats)
- Torso stabilization = helps with posture and alignment, keep torso/axial skeleton stable, abs and back have to co-contract isometrically
- Functional = replicates daily activities, like narrow stance squat, may not be distinct from multi-muscle or stabilization exercises
List several special considerations for muscular strength and endurance training.
- range of motion
- speed and control
- muscle balance
- torso stability
- equipment techniques
- exercise in water
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper flexibility training.
- Definition = joint mobility, muscle suppleness and flexibility
- Purpose = reduce muscle tension, increase joint mobility, reduce injury
- Duration = 5-10 minutes or whole 60 minute class
List and describe three common flexibility training methods.
- Static stretches = elongate muscles and hold 15-60 seconds, 1-4 times each
- Dynamic/full range of motion = stretch with movement, can be controlled or ballistic
- PNF = contract prior to stretch, need assistance or special equipment
List several special considerations for flexibility training.
- speed and control
- range of motion
- body temperature
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper final class segment.
- Definition = closure, stretch, relax, reduce stress
- Purpose = facilitate relaxation, promote mind-body awareness
- Duration = 5-10 minutes
List and describe three common relaxation methods.
- Physical focus = focus on body systems and sensations
- Mental/abstract focus = use the imagination
- Combination = both physical and mental
List several special considerations for a final class segment.
- heart rate monitoring
- method selection
- sauna/hot tub
Explain resting heart rate.
pulse when at rest, without physical activity; indicates cardiac health as higher HR(rest) means heart works harder to circulate blood through body
How does increased cardiorespiratory fitness affect resting heart rate?
with fitness the resting heart rate goes down because stroke volume increases, making blood circulation more efficient per beat
What is the formula for age-predicted maximal heart rate?
220 - age or 206.9 - (.67 x age)
What is the formula for target heart rate range (THRR) using HR(max)/MHR?
- MHR x .64 = lower value
- MHR x .94 = higher value
- used to be 55-90% of MHR
What is the formula for target heart range using heart rate reserve (HRR) and the Karvonen formula?
- MHR - RHR = HRR
- Karvonen - HRR x low (40%) or high (85%) + RHR
How do target heart rate range (THRR) and heart rate reserve (HRR) differ?
Both methods use age as a factor for determining optimal range of heart range during physical activity, but HRR is more precise than THRR because it incorporates an individual's resting heart rate and therefore better reflects the rate of energy expenditure for that individual.
Explain recovery heart rate.
heart rate at the end of physical activity, after 5 minutes it should be less than 55% of maximum heart rate
How should you monitor heart rate manually?
- Locate pulse in radial artery
- Count for 10 seconds, starting at 1
Besides heart rate, what are two methods for monitoring intensity during exercise?
- RPE = rate of perceived exertion, how hard someone thinks they're working, on a scale of 0-10 or 6-20
- Talk Test = can someone converse while exercising?
How is exercise response affected when someone abruptly stops cardiorespiratory exercise?
How is exercise response affected when someone works above target heart rate range?
anaerobic metabolism increases, larger EPOC
How is exercise response affected when someone takes stimulants (coffee, tobacco, etc?
it raises resting heart rate
How is exercise response affected when someone is taking cardiac medications?
may slow heart response, lower maximum heart rate
How is exercise response affected when someone has the Pressor response?
heart rate and blood pressure rise disproportionately to oxygen cost of the activity
List four ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio workout.
- higher impact moves
- faster rhythms
- change directions and planes
- add upper body movement
How would you define the word rhythm?
measured motion with regular recurrence of elements or features such as beat
What is a "musical phrase"?
typically 32 beats of music, broken down into 8 sets of 4 beats
What are the legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise?
you need the approval of a performing rights company
What are some examples of low-impact aerobic choreography?
- step touch
- touch step
What are some examples of moderate-impact aerobic choreography?
- knee lift with heel lift
What are some examples of high-impact aerobic choreography?
Define LIA, MIA, and HIA, and explain how they differ from one another.
- LIA = low-impact aerobics, at least one foot is on the floor at a time
- MIA = moderate-impact aerobics, feet are on the floor but roll through toe-ball-heel action
- HIA = high-impact aerobics, both feet leave the floor at the same time or alternating, impact force on foot is high
To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A participants, list three types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training.
List four motivational techniques to sustain a Type B participant for lifelong exercise adherence.
List a minimum of eight action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice participant.
- warm welcome
- take interest
- appropriate and specific guidance
- clear expectations
- observe and assist
- use positive terminology ("level 1" vs. "basic")
- don't worry about them being in time to the music
- de-emphasize transitions
- corrections only when most needed
- practice what you preach - do the modifications along with the beginners
- position them so they can see and hear you
- think positive
- offer report cards
- change things up slowly
- make sure they know beginner level is OK - they don't need to try to progress quickly to the next level
What are the FITT guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness?
- Frequency = 3-5 days per week
- Intensity = MHR 64-94% or HRR 40-85%, RPE 12-16/4-8, more than 1000kcal/week
- Time = 20-60 minutes continuous or intermittent with at least 10 minute intervals; best is 20-25 minutes of high intensity or 30 minutes of moderate intensity
- Type = something continuous, rhythmic, using large muscle groups (dance, walk, jog, hike, cycle, swim, stairs, cross country ski, step, etc.)
What are the FITT guidelines for muscular strength and endurance?
- Frequency = minimum 2-3 non-consecutive days per week, each muscle group (arms, shoulders, chest, abs, back, hips, legs); vary exercises
- Intensity = to the point of muscle fatigue while maintaining proper form, 1-4 sets of 8-25 repetitions, depending on if focus is strength or endurance
- Time = 20-60 minutes, depends on training protocol
- Type = any activity overloading the musculoskeletal system in the form of external, gravitational, or isometric resistance (weights, calisthenics, tubing/bands, stabilization); multi-joint exercises are recommended
What are the FITT guidelines for flexibility?
- Frequency = minimum of 2-3 days per week, ideal is 5-7; each muscle group and tendon group, with special attention for areas with reduced range of motion
- Intensity = to the end of range of motion/point of tightness without discomfort, 1-4 repetitions
- Time = 15-60 seconds per stretch
- Type = activity focused on elongating muscles and moves joint safely through full range of motion