Business law Ch. 15

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Business law Ch. 15
2012-07-31 00:09:12
Business law 15

Business Law Ch. 15
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  1. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act)
    The principlas federal law requiring private sector employers to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses by removing hazards from the workplace.
  2. Occupational Safety and health Admininstration (OSHA)
    An agency that has overall responsibility for administering and enforcing that Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) -which it does by establising safety standars, conducting inspections of workplaces, and providing information to employers and employees about workplace safety and health issues.
  3. occupational Safety and health Review Commission (OSHRC)
    An agency that hears appeals of the Occupational Safety and health Administration's (OSHA's) enforcement actions.
  4. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    An agency that provides scientific and technical support to the Occupational Safety and health Admnistration (OSHA) helping it to identify workplace hazards and develop and develop appropriate standards.
  5. safety standard
    The minimum level of safety that employers are required to provide through standards created by the Occupational Safetety and health Administration (OSHA) and through the general duty clause in the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act)
  6. variance
    Permission for an employer not to comply, either temporarily or permanently, with an Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) standard.
  7. permissible exposure limit (PEL)
    The maximum alowable level of exposure to a hazard in the workplace under the Occupational Saftey and health Act (OSH Act)
    The level of risk to emplyees that must be established before the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) is allowed to prmulgate new safety standards for workplace
  9. cost-benefit analyis
    An examination of the costs to employers of complying with an OSHA safety standard compared to the economic value of the expected improvement in worker health.
  10. general duty clause
    A clause in the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) that places basic responsibility for workplace safety with employers; this clause can be invoked for enforcement purposes in the absense of standards regulating the specific hazard involoved.
  11. ergonomics
    The fit between the physical demands of jobs and the physical abilities of people
  12. musculoskeletal disorder (MSD)
    A repetitive stress injury or cumulative trauma disorder that results from employee' interaction with work tasks, equipment, and surroundings in the workplace; also referred to as repetitive stress injury or cumulative trauma disorder.
  13. inspection
    An examination of a workplace made by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in an effort to enforce its safety and health standards.
  14. citation
    A notice to an employer of safety violations under the occupational Safety and heath Act (OSH Act) That includes the nature of the violation, the Occupational Safety and helth Administration (OSHA) standard(s) violated, the monetary penalty associated with the violation, and the amount of time the employer has to correct the problem (the abatement period).
  15. abatement
    Elimination or lessening of a workplace hazard that puts employees at risk for safety and health problems.
  16. Mine Safety and Health Act
    A law concerning the hazards of mining that regulates mining conditions by requiring inspections; eforced by the Mine Safety and health Administration instead of the Occupational Safety and Health Admininstration (OSHA)
  17. control
    A method by which an employer can eliminate or lesson hazards to which employees are subjected (e.g. guards on machines, proper ventalation, rest breaks)
  18. hierarchy of controls
    Industrial hygiene principle that safety improvement efforts should give highest priority to eliminating or engineering out hazards. Personal protective equipment is viewed as a last resort.
  19. workplace safety program
    A comprehensive program established by an employer to instill a safety culture in an organizaiotn, making safety a entral concern taht is closely monitored, discussed, rewarded, and continuously improved.
  20. workers' compensation
    State laws that provde for employees who suffer accidental injury, illness, or death from their employment.
  21. experience rating
    An employer's track record regarding the number of injuries that have occurred in the workplace that is used to determine the amount an employer must contribute to workers' compensation.
  22. contributory negligence
    A common law fefense to negligence claims that states that if a person is injured in part due to her own negligence (e.g. her negligence c"contributes" to the accident), the injured party is not entitled to damages.
  23. fellow servant rule
    A common law defense to negligence claims, which does not apply under workers' compensation, that holds that employers being sued by employees can defent themselves by claiming that fellow workers were responsible instead.
  24. assumption of risk
    A common law defense to negligence claims that does not apply under workers' compensation and holds that an employer is not responsible for an employee's injury if the employee knowingly took on dangerous work.
  25. exclusive remedy
    A procdeure in which an employer has absolute liability for an employee;s injuries and the employee cannot sue the employer for those injuries; workers' compensation is the exclusive remedy for injuries and illnesses that arise out of an in the course of employment.
  26. in the course of employment
    A requirement for workers' compensation that referss to the time, place, and setting in which an employee's injury or illness occured.
  27. arising out of employment
    A requirement for workers' compensation that refers to the underlying cause of an employee's injury or illness.