AMS1

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Author:
alyn217
ID:
164562
Filename:
AMS1
Updated:
2012-07-31 12:22:57
Tags:
AMS1T3 Abdominal trauma
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Description:
abdominal trauma
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  1. Types and causes of abdominal trauma
    • Causes
    • Blunt Trauma
    • MVA
    • Falls
    • Compression injuries
    • Shearing injuries
    • Penetrating Trauma
    • Gun Shot wound
    • Stabbing
    • Types of Injuries
    • Lacerated liver
    • Ruptured spleen, bladder, diaphragm, stomach or intestine
    • Renal or pancreas injury
    • Mesenteric artery tears
  2. Cinical manifestations of abdominal trauma
    • Abdominal pain
    • Pain over scapula: (phrenic nerve irritation by blood)
    • Guarding/splinting (peritonitis)
    • Hard, distended abdomen (bleeding)
    • Decreased or absent bowel sounds
    • Contusions, abrasions, bruising
    • (seat belt injury)
    • Hematemesis or hematuria
    • s/sx hypovolemic shock
  3. What are cullen's and grey turner's signs?
  4. Diagnostics studies involved with abd trauma
    • Labs
    • --CBC
    • --Urinalysis
    • --ABG
    • --PT
    • --Lytes
    • --BUN
    • Abdominal Ultrasound
    • CT of Abdomen
    • Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage
  5. Collaborative management of pt w/abd trauma
    • Emergency Management
    • Patent Airway
    • Breathing
    • Fluid replacement 
    • Prevention of Hypovolemic Shock
    • IV line- Large bore, preferrably two to give blood, volume expanders
    • NG tube
    • Emergency Laparatomy
    • Impaled object should only be removed with skilled care available
  6. What is peritonitis?
    • What? Localized or generalized inflammation of peritoneum.
    • --Primary: blood-borne organisms enter the peritoneal cavity (cirrhosis)
    • --Secondary: abdominal organs perforate or rupture and release contents (bile, enzymes, bacteria) into peritoneal cavity
    • Why? Ruptured appendix, perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer, severely inflamed gall bladder, trauma
    • Symptoms? Rebound tenderness, guarding of abdomen, “board like abdomen”, restlessness, shallow respirations, abdominal distention, fever/chills, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, pallor
    • Complications:  Hypovolemia!
    • Can be Fatal! Don’t delay treatment
  7. Diagnostics for peritonitis
    • CBC
    • Peritoneal Aspiration: (blood, pus, bacteria, fungus, amylase)
    • Abdominal X-ray: (free air-perforation, air and fluid-obstruction)
    • CT or Ultrasound: (ascites, abscesses)
  8. Management of pt w/peritonitis
    • Surgery
    • Antibiotics
    • NPO
    • NG suction
    • Analgesics
    • IV Fluids
    • Oxygen
    • Parenteral Nutrition

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