African American studies ExamII
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Purpose of reconstrucation (2)
help south and protect blacks
Reconstrution failed to do what
deal with blacks integration into southern society.
3 main things about Booker T. Washington
-Was one of the most famous black men in the country after the death of Fredrick Douglas
- -Founder of the Tuskegee
- Institute →
- Encourage education in agriculture and in industrial
What was the Atlanta Compromise
- an accommodationist (compromise) approach to racism and discrimination. (nothing in his
- plan to uplight blacks that would make completion with whites)
Why Whites likes Washington
He accepted racism. (wasn't athreat to whites)
Why does Washington say that Black people should not agitate for political right? (4 reasons)
1.)Because black are to ignorant for political rights at that moment in time.
2.) It's in the best interest of northern white ( upset southern whites)
3.)It's in the best interest of southen whites ( more votes)
4.)It's not in the interest of Black to participate in political life
When did African Americans began to migrate
Post- Reconstruction period
When and what happened during the great migration
- -1.5 million Southern Blacks more to Northern Cities
Why migrate to the North (3 reasons)
- -Oppressive race
- relations in the South
- -Depressed economic
- -Industrial growth in
- the North
Whats the Private contract clauses
Forbad the sale of property to Black people
What court case got rid of House segregation
(shelly V. Cramer) Case Thurgood marshall won case
How many blacks lived in Harlem
National Black Women's Club movement
Racial oppression increases.. it develops differently than it had during enslavement.
1896 National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
- -Anti-lynching advocacy
- -Stopping he sexual abuse/attacks on the moral character of black women
- -Health Care
- -Job training.
Niagara Movement- 1905 (4 things)
- -Militant organization demands the right to vote, right to education, abolition of Jim Crow,
- Enforcement of 13th 14th 15h amendments.
Who started the NAACP and its purpose- 1909
-White liberals make this organization less militant
- -wanted a gradual change not Militant ( Less aggressive campaigns results in change that is
- more enduring)
Urban League – 1911
- -No real political activity-
- focus is on job training programs, housing, health clinics.
+What is the trouble with Booker T. Washington
He made his program a way of life
What does DuBois say about the Atlanta Compromise?
-It short handed African American
What is DuBois' characterization of Washington's leadership (2)
-He is all about money and working. His program doesn't accept that blacks are cable of history and certain studies.
What is the “Negro Problem”
Lack of education
To what does the “Talented tenth” refer?
-Best of their time, the elite black men 10% of them
+How is Dubois' plan accomplished? What does he want?
-By establishing black colleges to train black leader to be leaders of culture
What is the Harlem Ressiance
is an assertion of African American artistic and cultural expression and identity at the beginning of the 1920s
The Harlem Renaissance is
the New Negro Movement
The Negro Movement is important becaus
shows us how Black people were able to use art and music and literature as a reflection of how they saw themselves at this time... the Harlem Renaissance is are flection of ancient African culture that was being restored in American
Goal of Civil Rights Movement (2)
-the inclusion of Black people into society
-Forming organizations to secure voting rights, education right.. though non-violence
+Black power is about the struggle to achieve
- -Self- determination
- -Self- Defense
Black Nationalists believe
that white interest and Black interests are opposed to each other bytheir very nature.
Black Nationalists Support 2 things
- -African American autonomy (self determination)
- -varying degrees of African American separation.
Black nationilist beleave
unity must be built in the Black community first..before any alliances with others can be formed.
Cultural Nationalism is emphasis on what
Emphasis on the need for a spiritual renewal.. knowledge of the roots and traditions of one's own people.
+Emphasis on racial unity...divisions by class and gender aren't real
What do cultural nationist bleaive that divisions by class and gender aren't real
Because race is the category by which oppression is measured
+Nation of Islam and Louis Farrakhan (4things)
-Spiritual renewal brings discipline necessary for self-knowledge
-Self-reliant people are better able to develop and cultivate self-knowledge
-Self-reliance requires separation from White people
-Embracing Black authenticity requires rejecting “White values”
+Political action cannot help black people achieve self-determination unless
there is an economic component that encourages Black self-sufficiency.
3rd phase of New black politics is unquie in 3 keys ways which are
3 top High elective offices and why they are important
- 1.) Governor of State
- 2.) US Senator
- 3.)US President
(Entire state votes for these offices)
NewBlack Politics: Phase I
- +Black politicians elected during the 1970's (after Civil War)
- +Challenge to white powerstructure
-Black politicians must build bridges with White votes in their districts
NewBlack Politics: Phase II
- +During in 1980's, Black politicians are winning in majority-White districts
- +The emergence of the“de-racialized” campaign
NewBlack Politics Phase III
- -Current Black politicians,younger born after 1960, challenge other black politicians for office
- -some say that they arenot in touch with the civil rights movement
- -A challege to the “Oldguard”
- -De-racialized compain
+De-racialized campaign is what
avoiding references to race specific issues while emphasizing race neutral issues
+What's the catch with De-racialized
- -Avoiding race placatesWhite voters but alienates Black voters
- -Black politicians can'twin high elective office without White majorities, but can't getelected without core support from Black voters.
Significant wealth differences contribute to...
the gaps in race equality
Income is the money that
people receive from work
saving, realestate, retirement funds,stocks
Benefits those with money
Class explains the realtionship in terms
diffent tyes of access to power
+African Americans are ___
of population __ drug users __ arrests __prison populatio
12% 14% 37% 56%
Forbes top 400 -Who is the first African
American to appear on this list
Oprah Winfrey (only 1) #139 for Americans
Black Nationalism supports African American ______ meaning
- Self determination
Why Black nationalism are suspicious of forming alliances with others
Becuase they believe black unity must be built in the Black community first..before any alliances with others can beformed.
Out of 100, how many African Americans are on the top income earners in America
Forbes top 400 Wealthiest Americans
Only 1 Opaha 2billion
Barack Obama *types of voters he attracts and why
middle class young well educated, high income earning white voters
Obama relationship to others (like Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson)
Obama was cautious aboutaligning himself with Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson-
These areracially-polarizing leader who speak on race- specific issues
When did the Black power movement begain
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