Final Exam Review

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Final Exam Review
2012-07-31 22:46:19
final exam review

final exam review
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  1. anesthesiology
    medical care before, during, and after surgery 
  2. geriatric medicine 
    medical care for the elderly 
  3. rheumatology
    treatment of arthritis
  4. obstetrics
    care of mother and fetus throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and after care
  5. orthopedic surgery 
    treatment of the musculoskeletal system
  6. otolaryngology 
    treatment of diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, and throat 
  7. doctor of pediatric medicine 
    diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the foot 
  8. Sx
  9. PE
    physical examination 
  10. Dx
  11. P
  12. etiology 
  13. febrile
    relating to a fever 
  14. idiopathic
    a condition occurring without an identified cause 
  15. systemic 
    relating to the whole body 
  16. malaise 
    feeling unwell 
  17. prognosis 
    prediction of the likely outcome of a disease based on general health status  
  18. sequela 
    a disorder or condition after 
  19. a.c.
    before meals 
  20. a.m.
    before noon 
  21. b.i.d.
    twice a day 
  22. h.s.
  23. noc.
  24. p.r.n.
    as needed 
  25. q.o.d.
    four times a day 
  26. ad lib. 
    as desired 
  27. epithelium 
    cells covering external and internal surfaces of the body 
  28. epidermis 
    outer layer of the skin 
  29. squamous cell layer 
    cells comprising the outermost layers of the epidermis 
  30. basal layer 
    deepest region of the epidermis 
  31. dermis 
    connective tissue layer of the skin
  32. sebaceous glands 
    oil glands in the skin 
  33. sebum 
    oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands 
  34. sudoriferous glands 
    sweat glands 
  35. subcutaneous tissue 
    connective fatty tissue 
  36. collagen 
    protein substance found in the skin and connective tissue 
  37. lesion
    skin problem 
  38. primary lesions 
    skin problems arising from normal skin 
  39. erosion 
    loss of superficial epidermis leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding 
  40. excoriation 
    scratch mark 
  41. fissure
    linear crack in skin 
  42. cicatrix of the skin 
  43. keloid 
    overgrowth of scar tissue 
  44. vascular lesions 
    lesions of a blood vessel 
  45. telangiectasia 
    red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels 
  46. purpuric lesions 
    bleeding into the skin 
  47. petechia 
    spot on the skin that indicates a bleeding tendency 
  48. ecchymosis 
  49. nevus 
  50. dysplastic nevus 
    a mole with precancerous changes 
  51. verruca
  52. alopecia 
  53. comedo 
    a plug of oil within the opening of a hair follicle 
  54. closed comedo 
  55. open comedo 
  56. eruption
    appearance of a skin lesion
  57. erythema 
    redness of skin 
  58. pruritus 
    severe itching 
  59. suppuration 
    production of pus
  60. urticaria 
  61. xeroderma 
    dry skin 
  62. cellulitis 
    inflammation of subcutaneous tissue 
  63. dermatosis 
    any disorder of the skin 
  64. rubella 
    german measles 
  65. rubeola 
    14 day measles 
  66. varicella 
  67. eczema 
    to boil out 
  68. furuncle 
    a boil 
  69. carbuncle 
    clusters of boils 
  70. abscess 
    collection of pus that is healed when drained 
  71. gangrene
    an eating sore 
  72. herpes zoster
    painful blisters that spread over the skin 
  73. ichthyosis 
    gene defect that results in dry, thick, scaly skin 
  74. impetigo 
    skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture and crust 
  75. keratoses
    thickened areas of epidermis 
  76. lupus 
    inflammation of various parts of the body 
  77. onychia 
    inflammation of the fingernail or toenail 
  78. paronychia 
    inflammation of the nail fold 
  79. pediculosis 
    infestation with lice 
  80. psoriasis 
    scales covering red patches on the skin that result from overproduction and thickening of skin cells 
  81. scabies 
    mite that invades the skin 
  82. seborrhea 
    a lot of oil coming out of sebaceous glands 
  83. tinea 
  84. vitiligo 
    white patches on the skin 
  85. chemosurgery 
    restoring skin by applying an acid solution to peel away the top layers of the skin 
  86. cyrosurgery 
    destruction of tissue by freezing 
  87. dermabrasion 
    surgical removal of frozen epidermis 
  88. debridement
    removal of dead tissue from a wound
  89. curettage
    removing dead tissue 
  90. electrosurgical procedures
    use of electric currents to destroy tissue 
  91. Mohs surgery
    excising a tumor on the skin by removing it layer by layer
  92. anesthetic 
    a drug that temporarily blocks transmission of nerve conduction to produce a loss of sensations
  93. antipruritic 
    a drug that relieves itching 
  94. antiseptic 
    an agent that inhibits the growth of infectious microorganisms 
  95. appendicular skeleton
    bones of upper and lower extremities 
  96. axial skeleton 
    bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone 
  97. sesamoid bone
    round bones found near joints 
  98. articulation
    a joint, where two bones come together 
  99. bursa
    cushion between tendons and bones 
  100. disk
    cushion between spine 
  101. ligament
    tissue that connects bone to bone 
  102. synovial membrane 
    membrane lining the capsule of a joint 
  103. synovial fluid 
    fluid secreted by the synovial membrane 
  104. striated skeletal muscle 
    voluntary striated muscle attached to the skeleton 
  105. smooth muscle 
    involuntary muscle found in internal organs
  106. origin of a muscle 
    end of the muscle that does not contract when it moves 
  107. insertion of a muscle 
    end of the muscle that moves when contracts
  108. tendon
    a band of tissue that connects muscle to bone 
  109. fascia 
    a band or sheet of connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle  
  110. coronal (frontal) plane
    vertical division of the body into front and back portions
  111. sagittal plane 
    vertical division of the body into right and left portions 
  112. transverse plane 
    horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions 
  113. decubitus 
    lying down
  114. prone
    lying face down 
  115. supine
    lying flat on back 
  116. supination
    turning upward or forward of the palm 
  117. pronation
    turning downward of the palm 
  118. dorsiflexion
    bending of the foot or toes upward 
  119. plantar flexion
    bending of the sole of the foot or toes toward the ground 
  120. arthralgia 
    joint pain 
  121. atrophy
    shrinking of tissue 
  122. exostosis 
    a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage 
  123. flaccid 
  124. hypertrophy
    increase in the size of tissue 
  125. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone or tension
  126. myalgia
    muscle pain
  127. ostealgia
    bone pain 
  128. tetany
  129. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  130. osteoarthritis (OA)
    arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints 
  131. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    most crippling form of arthritis characterized by an inflammation in the joints
  132. gouty arthritis 
    acute attacks of arthritis in a single joint 
  133. bony necrosis 
    dead bone tissue 
  134. bunion
    swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe 
  135. carpal tunnel syndrome 
    pressure on the median nerve 
  136. chondromalacia 
    softening of cartilage 
  137. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor 
  138. myositis 
    inflammation of muscle 
  139. muscular dystrophy 
    genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles 
  140. osteomalacia 
    softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency 
  141. rickets
    osteomalacia in children 
  142. osteomyelitis
    inflammation of bone and bone marrow
  143. osteoporosis
    decreased bone density and increased porosity
  144. kyphosis 
  145. lordosis 
    anterior curvature of the lumbar spine 
  146. scoliosis
    S-shaped curve of the spine 
  147. spondylolisthesis 
    forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra 
  148. spondylosis 
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae due to joint degeneration
  149. subluxation
    a partial dislocation 
  150. arthrocentesis
    puncture for aspiration of a joint 
  151. arthrodesis 
    binding or fusing of joint surfaces 
  152. orthosis 
    use of an appliance to maintain a bone's position or provide limb support
  153. endocardium
    membrane lining the cavities of the heart 
  154. epicardium
    membrane forming the outer layer of the heart 
  155. interatrial septum 
    partition between the right and left atrium
  156. interventricular septum 
    partition between right and left ventricle 
  157. pericardium
    protective sac enclosing the heart 
  158. pulmonary semilunar valve
    heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery 
  159. tricuspid valve
    valve between the right atrium and right ventricle 
  160. arteries
    vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
  161. capillaries 
    tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  162. venules
    small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins 
  163. systemic circulation
    circulation of blood throughout the body 
  164. coronary circulation 
    circulation of blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue 
  165. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery, to the lungs, and back to the heart 
  166. diastole
    to expand
  167. systole 
    to contract
  168. sinoatrial node (SA node)
  169. atrioventricular node 
    neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His 
  170. bundle of His
    fire the impulse from the AV node the the Purkinje fibers
  171. arteriosclerosis 
    hardening of the arterial walls 
  172. atherosclerosis 
    buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries 
  173. thrombus 
    stationary blood clot 
  174. embolus 
    a clot carried in the bloodstream
  175. stenosis 
    narrowing of a part 
  176. ischemia 
    to hold back blood 
  177. perfusion deficit 
    a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing 
  178. infarct 
    to stuff 
  179. angina pectoris 
    chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle 
  180. aneurysm
    a widening 
  181. claudication 
    to limp 
  182. diaphoresis 
    profuse sweating 
  183. palpitation
    pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  184. arrhythmia 
    irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat 
  185. fibrillation
    irregular contractions of the heart 
  186. arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    a degenerative condition of the arteries
  187. bacterial endocarditis 
    a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves 
  188. cardiac tamponade 
    compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac 
  189. congenital anomaly of the heart 
    malformations of the heart present at birth 
  190. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    failure to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body 
  191. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    a condition that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart 
  192. hypertension (HTN)
    high blood pressure 
  193. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in backflow of blood 
  194. myocardial infarction (MI)
    heart attack
  195. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever 
  196. auscultation
    listening to sounds within the body 
  197. endarterectom
    incision of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot 
  198. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery 
  199. defibrillation 
    termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart 
  200. cardioversion 
    termination of tachycardia 
  201. antianginal 
    a drug that restores oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris 
  202. antiarrhythmic 
    a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia 
  203. anticoagulant 
    a drug that prevents clotting of the blood 
  204. antihypertensive
    a drug that lowers blood pressure 
  205. cardiotonic
    a drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart 
  206. diuretic 
    a drug that increases the secretion of urine 
  207. hypolipidemic
    a drug that reduces fat and cholesterol 
  208. plasma
    liquid portion of the blood
  209. serum
    liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process
  210. erythrocyte 
    red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 
  211. hemoglobin
    protein-iron compound that has bonding capabilities for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide 
  212. leukocyt
    white blood cell that protects the body from harmful substances 
  213. neutrophil
    a white blood cell that fights infection by swallowing bacteria
  214. eosinophil 
    a granular leukocyte 
  215. platelets 
    cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting 
  216. thymus 
    helps maintain the body's immune system
  217. spleen 
    filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris
  218. lymph 
    fluid originating in the organs and tissues of the body 
  219. lymph capillaries 
    vessels that draw lymph from the tissues of the lymph vessesl
  220. lymph vessels
    vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes 
  221. lymph nodes
    many small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessesl
  222. lymph ducts
    collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins 
  223. erythropenia 
    reduced number of red blood cells 
  224. lymphocytopenia
    reduced number of lymphocytes 
  225. neutropenia 
    a decrease in the number of neutrophils 
  226. pancytopenia
    reduced number of all cellular components in the blood 
  227. hemylysis 
    breakdown of the red blood cell membrane 
  228. autoimmune disease
    any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself 
  229. hemochromatosis 
    an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body 
  230. hemophilia 
    bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors 
  231. metastasis 
    cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs 
  232. mononucleosis 
    increase in mononuclear cells in the blood, along with enlarge lymph nodes, fatigue, and sore throat 
  233. polycythemia 
    increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin the blood 
  234. septicemia 
    a systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and tier toxins in the circulating blood 
  235. thrombocytopenia 
    a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood 
  236. palate
    partition between the oral and nasal cavities 
  237. adenoid
    lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose 
  238. trachea
  239. bronchial tree
    branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
  240. alveoli
    air sacs that exchange gases 
  241. pleura
    membranes enclosing the lung and lining the thoracic cavity 
  242. pleural cavity
    space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
  243. mediastinum
    separates the thorax into two compartments 
  244. parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ 
  245. eupnea
    normal breathing 
  246. hypopnea 
    shallow breathing 
  247. hyperpnea 
    deep breathing 
  248. orthopnea
    ability to breath only in upright position 
  249. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth 
  250. stridor
    sign of obstruction in the upper airway 
  251. dysphonia
  252. epistaxis
  253. expectoration
    coughing up and spitting out material from the lungs 
  254. hypercapnia
    excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  255. hypoxemia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood 
  256. hypoxia
    deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells 
  257. obstructive lung disorder
    blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs 
  258. pulmonary edema
    fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli
  259. pulmonary infiltrate 
    density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs
  260. rhinorrhea 
    thin, watery discharge from the nose 
  261. atelectasis
    collapse of lung tissue
  262. bronchiectasis 
    dilation of the bronchi with mucus 
  263. bronchogenic carcinoma 
    lung cancer
  264. emphysema
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air
  265. cystic fibrosis
    inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick mucus that obstructs passageways within the body 
  266. pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
  267. pneumoconiosis
    chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts 
  268. pneumothorax
    air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
  269. pneumohemothroax 
    air and blood in the pleural cavity 
  270. frontal lobe
    responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
  271. parietal lobe
    responsible for sensations
  272. temporal lobe
    responsible for hearing, taste, and smell 
  273. occipital lobe 
    responsible for vision
  274. cerebral cortex
    responsible for higher mental functions 
  275. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system 
  276. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands  
  277. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve 
  278. syncope
  279. hyperesthesia 
    increased sensitivity to touch 
  280. parethesia 
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without any cause 
  281. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells 
  282. cerebral palsy (CP)
    motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth 
  283. cerebrovascular disease
    disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain 
  284. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain 
  285. encephalitis 
    inflammation of the brain 
  286. glioma
    tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy 
  287. Huntington disease (HD)
    hereditary disease of the central nervous system 
  288. hydrocephalus 
    accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain 
  289. meningioma 
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain 
  290. myasthenia gravis 
    progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest 
  291. plegia 
  292. poliomyelitis 
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord 
  293. lumbar puncture (LP)
    introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region 
  294. catatonia
    state of unresponsiveness 
  295. dysphoria
    restless, dissatisfied mood 
  296. euphoria
    feeling of well-being 
  297. neurosis
    psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent 
  298. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions 
  299. epinephrine 
    affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
  300. pancreas
    secretes insulin and glucagon 
  301. parathyroid glands 
    located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, functioning to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  302. pineal gland 
    secretes melatonin and serotonin 
  303. exophthalmos 
    protrusion of one or both eyeballs 
  304. hyperkalemia 
    high level of potassium in the blood 
  305. hypernatremia
    excessive level of sodium ions in the blood 
  306. polydipsia 
    excessive thirst 
  307. polyuria 
    excessive urination
  308. hyperinsulinism
    condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream 
  309. hyperparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands 
  310. hypoparathyroidism
    hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands 
  311. acromegaly
    enlarged features 
  312. goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid gland 
  313. anterior chamber
    fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris 
  314. choroid 
    vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina 
  315. ciliary body
    muscle that controls the power of the lens 
  316. ciliary muscle 
    smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability 
  317. ciliary processes 
    epithelial tissue folds that secrete aqueous humor 
  318. cornea
    anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to bend light to focus an image 
  319. fovea centralis 
    pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lea that is the site of sharpest vision 
  320. fundus 
    interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole 
  321. lens 
    bends and focuses light on the retina 
  322. lens capsule 
    capsule that encloses the lens 
  323. macula lutea 
    central region of the retina responsible for central vision 
  324. optic disk 
    exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins 
  325. optic nerve 
    nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain 
  326. posterior chamber 
    space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aqueous fluid 
  327. retina 
    innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve 
  328. sclera
    white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve 
  329. vitreous
    jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye 
  330. blepharospasm 
    involuntary contraction of the muscle surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing 
  331. diplopia
    double vision
  332. exophthalmos
    abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
  333. nystagmus 
    rapid movement of the eyeball
  334. scotoma 
    blind spot in vision 
  335. astigmatism 
    distorted vision that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina 
  336. astigmatism 
    distorted vision caused by a curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina 
  337. hyperopia 
  338. myopia 
  339. presbyopia 
    impaired vision owing to old-age
  340. ambylopia
    decreased vision in early life 
  341. aphakia 
    absence of the lens
  342. blepharoptosis 
    drooping of the eyelid
  343. chalazion 
    chronic inflammation of a meibomian gland 
  344. diabetic retinopathy
    disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation 
  345. ectropion 
    outward turing of the rim of the eyelid 
  346. entropion 
    inward turning of the rim of the eyelid 
  347. glaucoma 
    grouped of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve 
  348. hordeolum
    acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid 
  349. keratitis 
    inflammation of the cornea 
  350. macular degeneration 
    breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula 
  351. pseudophakia 
    eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial one 
  352. pterygium 
    fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea 
  353. strabismus 
    crossed eyes 
  354. trichiasis 
    misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea 
  355. refraction 
    measurement of refractive errors 
  356. phoropter 
    instrument that holds corrective lenses in front of the eye 
  357. enucleation 
    excision of an eyeball 
  358. intraocular lens implant
    implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
  359. pinna 
    projected part of the external ear
  360. external auditory meatus 
    external passage for sounds collected from the pinna to the tympanum 
  361. cerumen 
    waxy substance secreted by glands located throughout the external canal 
  362. tympanic membrane (TM)
  363. malleus 
    first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear 
  364. incus 
    middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear 
  365. stapes 
    last of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear 
  366. eustachian tube 
    tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx
  367. oval window 
    membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear 
  368. inner ear 
    structures and liquids that relay sound waves to the auditory nerve fibers on a path to the brain 
  369. labyrinth
    inner ear consisting of bony and membranous labyrinths 
  370. cochlea 
    fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the ear 
  371. semicircular canals 
    three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement 
  372. otalgia 
  373. otorrhagia 
    bleeding from the ear 
  374. otorrhea
    purulent drainage from the ear 
  375. tinnitus 
    ringing in the ear 
  376. vertigo
  377. otitis externa 
    inflammation of the external auditory meatus 
  378. cerumen impaction
    excessive buildup of wax in the ear
  379. myringitis 
    inflammation of the eardrum 
  380. otitis media 
    inflammation of the middle ear 
  381. aerotitis media 
    inflammation of the middle ear from changes in atmospheric pressure 
  382. conductive hearing loss 
    hearing impairment caused by interference with sound of vibratory energy in the external canal, middle ear, or ossicles 
  383. sensorineural hearing loss 
    hearing impairment caused by lesions or dysfunction of the cochlea or auditory nerve 
  384. presbyacusis 
    hearing impairment in old age 
  385. brainstem auditory evoked potentials 
    electrodiagnostic testing using computerized equipment to measure involuntary responses to sound within the auditory nervous system 
  386. myringotomy
    incision into the eardrum 
  387. otoplasty
    surgical repair of the external ear 
  388. stapedectomy 
    excision of the stapes to correct otosclerosis 
  389. tympanoplasty 
    vein graft of a scarred tympanic membrane to improve sound conduction 
  390. ear instillation 
    introduction of a medicated solution into the external canal 
  391. colon 
    portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum 
  392. rectal ampulla
    dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal 
  393. peritoneum
    membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity 
  394. gallbladder
    receptacle that stores and concentrators the bile produced in the liver 
  395. pancreas
    gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food 
  396. ascites
    fluid in the peritoneal cavity 
  397. dyspepsia 
  398. eructation 
  399. hematochezia 
    red blood in the stool 
  400. hematemesis 
    vomiting blood 
  401. hepatomegaly 
    enlargement in the liver 
  402. hyperbilirubinemia 
    excessive level of bile pigment in the blood 
  403. icterus 
    yellow discoloration of the skin 
  404. melena 
    dark colored stool from old blood 
  405. steatorrhea 
    feces containing fat 
  406. parotitis 
    inflammation of the parotid gland 
  407. cheilitis 
    inflammation of the lip 
  408. glossitis 
    inflammation of the tongue 
  409. esophageal varices 
    swollen twisted veins in the esophagus 
  410. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus 
  411. pyloric stenosis 
    narrowed condition of the pylorus 
  412. diverticulum 
    abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract 
  413. dysentery 
    inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools 
  414. intussusception 
    prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part 
  415. volvulus 
    twisting of the bowel on itself
  416. polyposis 
    multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum 
  417. anal fistula 
    tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum 
  418. cirrhosis
    chronic disease characterized by generation of liver tissue 
  419. cholangitis 
    inflammation of the bile ducts 
  420. cholecystitis 
    inflammation of the gallbladder 
  421. cholelithiasis 
    presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts 
  422. choledocholithiasis 
    presence of stones in the common bile duct 
  423. bariatric surgery 
    treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and or intestines 
  424. abdominocentesis 
    puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid 
  425. anastomosis 
    union of two hollow vessels 
  426. ileostomy 
    surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ill discharges 
  427. hepatic lobectomy 
    excision of a lobe of the liver 
  428. cholecystectomy 
    excision of the gallbladder 
  429. cholelithotomy 
    incision for removal of gallstones 
  430. choledocholithotomy 
    incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones 
  431. cholelithotripsy 
    crushing o the gallstones 
  432. nasogastric intubatioin
    insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes 
  433. calyces 
    system of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis 
  434. ureter 
    tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder 
  435. renal pelvis 
    basin-like portion of the ureter within the kidney 
  436. urethra
    canal that carries urine to the outside of the body 
  437. urethral meatus 
    opening in the urethra to the outside of the body 
  438. urea
    waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys 
  439. creatinine 
    waste product of muscle metabolism filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine 
  440. enuresis 
    to void urine 
  441. incontinence 
    involuntary discharge of urine or feces 
  442. oliguria 
    scanty production of urine 
  443. polyuria 
    excessive urination 
  444. pyuria 
    white cells in the urine 
  445. urinary retention 
    retention of urine owning to the inability to naturally because of spasm or obstruction 
  446. glomerulonephritis 
    form of nephritis involving the glomerulus 
  447. hydronephrosis 
    dilation of urine in the renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys 
  448. pyelonephritis 
    inflammation of the renal pelvis 
  449. nephrosis 
    degenerative disease of the renal tubules 
  450. nephrolithiasis 
    presence of renal stones caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys 
  451. cystitis 
    inflammation of the bladder 
  452. urethrocystitis 
    inflammation of the urethra and bladder 
  453. urethral stenosis 
    narrowed condition of the urethra 
  454. uremia 
    excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney failure 
  455. cystometrogram 
    record that measures urinary volume, bladder pressure, and capacity to evaluate urinary dysfunction 
  456. intravenous pyelogram 
    x-rays of the urinary trisect taken after iodine is injected into the bloodstream 
  457. scout film 
    plain x-ray taken to detect any pathology before further imagine 
  458. renal angiogram 
    x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery 
  459. retrograde pyelogram 
    x-ray of the upper urinary tract taken after contrast medium is injected up to the kidney
  460. occult blood, urine 
    chemical test used to detect hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis 
  461. nephrolithotomy 
    incision into the kidney for the removal of stones 
  462. pyeloplasty 
    surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis 
  463. stend placement 
    use of a device to hold open vessels or tubes 
  464. urinary diversion 
    creation of a temporary or permanent diversion of the urinary tract to provide a new passage through which urine exits the body 
  465. urinary catheterization 
    methods of placing a tube into the bladder to drain or collect urine