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2012-07-31 23:40:48

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  1. What are the functions of the nervous system?
    Receive external stimuli that activate the cell membrane of nerve cells to release nervous impulses, carry impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord, recognize, interpret, and relay impulses to other nerve cells that extend throughout the body
  2. Cranial nerve I
    olfactory - smell
  3. Cranial nerve II
    optic -vision
  4. Cranial nerve III
    Oculomotor - eye movement
  5. Cranial nerve IV
    trochlear - eye movement
  6. Cranial nerve V
    Trigeminal - forehead and scalp sensation, cheek sensation, and chewing
  7. Cranial nerve VI
    Abducens - Eye movement
  8. Cranial nerve VII
    facial - face and scalp movement, taste, ear sensation
  9. Cranial nerve VIII
    Vestibulocochlear - hearing and balance
  10. Cranial nerve IX
    Glossopharyngeal - tongue and throat sensations and throat movements
  11. Cranial nerve X
    Vagus nerve - messages to and from neck, chest, abdomen - peristalsis, blood pressure, heart rate, coughing, sneezing
  12. Cranial nerve XI
    Accessory - swallowing and head and should movements
  13. Cranial nerve XII
    Hypoglossal - speech and swallowing
  14. What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
    increase heart rate and forcefulness, dilate airways, increase blood pressure, stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete epinephrine, and inhibit intestinal contractions
  15. What does the parasympathtic nervous system do?
    Decrease heart rate, lower blood pressure, stimulate intestinal contractions
  16. What is white matter?
    Composed of cell bodies covered with myelin sheath
  17. What is gray matter?
    Composed of cell bodies of neurons not covered with myelin sheaath
  18. Afferent nerve
    Carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord from stimulus receptors
  19. Efferent nerve
    Carry impulses away from the CNS to organs that produce responses
  20. What is the function of astrocytes?
    Transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons
  21. What is the function of microglial cells?
    phagocytic glial cells that remove waste products from the CNS and protect neurons in response to inflammation
  22. What is the function of Oligodendroglial cells?
    Form the myelin sheath in the CNS
  23. What is the function of ependymal cells?
    Line membranes within the brain and spinal cord where cerebrospinal fluid circulates; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
  24. What region of the brain is the gray matter?
    Outermost layer; cerebral cortex
  25. What is the right half of the brain responsible for?
    Spatial relationships, art, music, emotions, and intuition
  26. What is the left half of the brain responsible for?
    Language, math functioning, reasoning, and analytical thinking
  27. Function of Cerebrum
    Thought, judgment, memory association, and discrimination
  28. Function of Thalamus
    Main relay center of the brain, conducts impulses between the spinal cord and cerebrum; decides what information is important and maintains levels of awareness and consciousness
  29. Function of Hypothalamus
    Body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions; regulates release of hormones from the pituitary gland, integrates activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  30. Function of Cerebellum
    Voluntary muscle movements and maintains balance and posture
  31. Function of Basal ganglia
    Regulate intentional movements of the body
  32. Function of Medulla oblongata
    Respiratory center - controls muscles of respiration, cardiac center - slows the heart rate when it is beating too rapidly, vasomotor center - affect the muscles in the walls of blood vessels
  33. Frontal lobe
    Thought processes, behavior, personality, and emotion (Broca area - language expression)
  34. Parietal lobe
    Body sensations, visual and spatial perception
  35. Occipital lobe
  36. Temporal lobe
    Hearing, understanding speech and language (Wernicke area - language comprehension)
  37. Where is the wernicke area and what is its function?
    temporal lobe of cerebrum - language comprehension
  38. Where is the broca area and what is its function?
    Frontal lobe of cerebrum - language expression
  39. Where is the gray matter of the spinal cord?
    inner region
  40. Where is the white matter of the spinal cord?
    Outer region
  41. Where is the gray matter of the brain?
    Outer region (cerebral cortex)
  42. Where is the white matter of the brain?
    Inner region
  43. Lept/o
    Thin, slender
  44. Radicul/o
    Nerve root
  45. Thec/o
  46. Alges/o
    Excessive sensitivity to pain
  47. Esthesi/o
    Feeling, nervous sensation
  48. Syncop/o
    To cut off, cut short
  49. Tax/o
    Order coordination
  50. -algesia
    Excessive sensitivity to pain
  51. -esthesia
    Feeling, nervous sensation
  52. -lepsy
  53. -paresis
  54. -praxia
  55. -sthenia
  56. Afferent nerve
    Nerve that carries nervous impulse toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerves
  57. Akinetic
    Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement
  58. Amyloid
    Deposit of proteins in neurofibrillary tangles
  59. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease)
    Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem
  60. What do tonic and clonic mean?
    tonic - stiffening of muscles, clonic - twitching and jerking movements of limbs
  61. Temporal lobe epilepsy
    Seizures begin in temporal lobe of the brain
  62. Complex partial seizure
    Mostcommon type of seizure - pause in whatever they are doing, confusion, and memory problems
  63. Analgesia
    Absence of sensitivity to pain
  64. Anencephaly
    Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter
  65. Anesthesia
    Lack of feeling or sensation
  66. Anesthetics
    Agents that reduce or eliminate sensation
  67. Aphasia
    Inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex
  68. Alzheimer disease
    Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration, personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning
  69. Which chromosome is linked to AD?
    Chromosome 14
  70. What are 3 characteristics of AD?
    Senile plaques (degeneration of neurons), neurofibrillary tangles (bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of a neuron) in the cerebral cortex, amyloid deposits
  71. Apraxia
    Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects
  72. Arachnoid membrane
    Middle layer of meninges covering brain and spinal cord
  73. Astrocyte
    Glial cell that transports salts and water from capillaries
  74. Ataxia
    Without coordination
  75. Basal ganglia
    Regulate intentional movements of the body
  76. Bell palsy
    Paralysis on one side of the face caused by a viral infection
  77. Cerebellopontine
    Pertaining to the cerebellum and pons
  78. Cerebellum
    Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
  79. Cerebral concussion
    Temporary brain dysfunction after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours
  80. Cerebral contusion
    Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic disorder persists longer than 24 hours
  81. Cerebral palsy
    Partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period
  82. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    Samples of CSF are examined for blood cells, protein, glucose, tumor cells, bacteria, and other substances
  83. Cerebrum
    Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, memory, and other functions
  84. Coma
    State of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused
  85. Corpus callosum
    Center portion of the brain that connects the two hemispheres
  86. Dopamine
    Neurotransmitter in CNS made by cells in the basal ganglia
  87. Doppler/ultrasound studies
    Sound waves are used to detect blood flow in arteries within the brain and leading to the brain
  88. Dyskinesia
    Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements
  89. Dyslexia
    Difficulty in reading, writing, and learning
  90. Efferent nerve
    Nerve that carries message away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
  91. Ependymal cell
    Glial cell that lines the membrane within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
  92. Epidural hematoma
    Collection of blood located between the skull and dura mater due to ruptured meningeal artery (usually after a skull fracture)
  93. Epilepsy
    Brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks of abnormal nervous impulses
  94. Glioblastoma
    Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain
  95. Gray matter
    Region of brain and spinal cord containing cell bodies and dendrites
  96. Gyrus
    Sheet of nerve cells that produce a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum
  97. Herpes zoster
    Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
  98. Huntington Disease
    Hereditary disorder affecting the cerebrum (degenerative changes in cerebrum) and involving abrupt, involuntary, jerking movements, and mental deterioration in later stages
  99. What causes Huntington Disease?
    Hereditary - genetic defect on chromosome 4
  100. What causes MS?
    idiopathic - maybe autoimmune disease of lymphocytes reacting against myelin
  101. Hypalgesia
    Diminished sensitivity to pain
  102. Hyperesthesia
    Excessive sensitivity or feeling especially of the skin in response to touch or pain
  103. Hypothalamus
    Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
  104. Ictal event
    Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as the convulsion of an epileptic seizure
  105. Intracerebral hematoma
    Collection of blood within the cerebrum due to bleeding in the brain tissue (usually from uncontrolled hypertension)
  106. Intrathecal
    Pertaining to within the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  107. intrathecal injections
    Chemicals injected into the subarachnoid space
  108. Irreversible coma
    Brain death; complete unresponsitivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat EEG tracing
  109. Leptomeningitis
    Inflammation of the two thinner membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  110. Lumbar puncture
    Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap
  111. Medulla oblongata
    Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels
  112. Meningocele
    Hernia in the meninges through a defect or space between vertebrae; a form of spina bifida cystica
  113. Microglial cell
    Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
  114. Motor aphasia
    Broca aphasia; expressive aphasia; The patient knows what he wants to say but cannot say it
  115. Myasthenia gravis
    Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
  116. What causes MG?
    Antibodies block the ability of acetylcholine to transmit the nervous impulse from nerve to muscle cell
  117. What treatments are used for MS?
    Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, interferons to slow the rate of MS symptoms, Glatiramer to block immune system's attack on myelin
  118. What treatments are used for MG? Therapy, Anticholinesterase drugs inhibit the enzyme that breaks dwon acetylcholine, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, thymectomy
  119. Myelomeningocele
    Congenital hernia of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral column; associated with spina bifida
  120. Neurasthenia
    Lack of strength in the nerves; feeling of weakness and exhaustion
  121. Neuroglia
    Supporting cells of the nervous system
  122. Oligodendroglial cell
    Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron
  123. Paresthesia
    Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause; tingling, numbness or pricking sensations
  124. Parkinson Disease
    Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occur in later life, leading to tumors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine is deficient in the brain
  125. What causes parkinson disease?
    Deficiency of dopamine
  126. How is parkinson disease treated?
    Levodopa + carbidopa (sinement) to increase dopamine levels in the brain to relieve symptoms
  127. what causes tourette syndrome?
    idiopathic; associated with excess of dopamine or hypersensitivity to dopamine
  128. What are treatments for tourette syndrome?
    Antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers
  129. How is meningitis diagnosed and treated?
    Lumbar puncture to examine CSF for diagnosis and antibiotics and antivirals for treatment
  130. What are three types of CVA?
    Thrombotic - blood clot in the arteries leading to the brain that blocks the vessels (TIAs), embolic - embolus occludes small cerebral vessel, 3.Hemorrhagic - blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs
  131. How is CVA treated?
    tPA within 3 hours of stroke onset and surgical intervention with carotid endarterectomy
  132. What causes a migraine?
    Dilation of blood vessels
  133. Gamma knife
    High-energy radiation beam used to treat deep and inaccessible intracranial brain tumors and abnormal blood vessel masses
  134. Proton sterostatic radiosurgery
    Delivers uniform dose of protom radiation to target and spares surrounding tissue
  135. Poliomyelitis
    Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  136. Pons
    Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain; connects the upper and lower portions of the brain
  137. Postictal events
    Neurologic symptoms such as weakness after seizures
  138. Radiculitis
    Inflammation of a spinal nerve root
  139. Radiculopathy
    Disease of a spinal nerve root
  140. Semicomatose
    A stupor (unresponsiveness) from which a patient can be aroused.
  141. Sensory aphasia
    The patient articulates words easily but uses them inappropriately; difficulty understanding written and verbal commands and cannot repeat them
  142. Spina bifida
    Congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal and meninges may herniate through the vertebral gap
  143. Spina bififa occulta
    Vertebral defect is covered with skin and evident onliny in x-rays
  144. Spina bifida cystica
    More severe form with cyst-like protrusions
  145. Meningocele
    Meninges protruse to the outside of the body
  146. Myelomeningocele
    Spinal cord and meninges protrude
  147. How is spina bifida diagnosed?
    Prental imaging methods and testing maternal blood samples for AFP
  148. Stereostatic radiosurgery
    Use of a specialized instrument using three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on
  149. Subarachnoid space
    Space between the pia mater and arachnoid membrane that controls CSF
  150. Subdural hematoma
    Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater from tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes
  151. Sulcus
    Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
  152. Syncope
  153. Transient ischemic attach
    Fleeting episode of ischemia in the brain
  154. Trigeminal neuralgia
    Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve; trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper and lower jaw
  155. Vagus nerve
    Tenth cranial nerve that controls the chest and abdominal organs
  156. Ventricles
    Fluid-filled canals in the brain
  157. White matter
    Region of brain and spinal cord containing nerve fiber tracts with myelin sheath
  158. TLE
    Temporal lob epilepsy
  159. TIA
    Transient ischemic attack
  160. AVM
    Arteriovenous malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum
  161. TBI
    Traumatic brain injury
  162. CVA
    Cerebrovascular accident
  163. PSRS
    Proton stereotactic radiosurgery
  164. GABA
    Gamma-amniobutyric acid (neurotransmitter)
  165. ICP
    Intracranial pressure (normal = 5-15 mm Hg)
  166. MAC
    Monitored anesthetic care
  167. TENS
    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; technique using a battery-powered device to relive acute and chronic pain
  168. What is the cause of hydrocephalus?
    Impaired circulation of CSF in the brain or spinal cord at birth; brain tumor or infection in adults
  169. How is hydrocephalus treated?
    Catheter placed in the ventricle of the brain into the peritoneal space or right atrium of the heart to drain CSF from the brain