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*Increased--dehydration, diarrhea, and metastatic carcinoma
- Maintains oncotic pressure
- Transports bilirubin, fatty acids, medications, hormones, and other substances that are insoluble in water.
*Decreased--acute infection, ascites, and alcoholism
4.5-13 King-Armstrong units/dL
an enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta.
during periods of bone growth
- Nursing Considerations:
- *12 hrs fasting before the test
- * Hepatotoxic medications administered within 12 hrs before the test can cause falsely elevated value.
a byproduct of protein catabolism
metabolized by the liver
, and excreted by the kidneys as urea
*Increased-- hepatic dysfunction; high levels may lead to encephalopathy
- * 8-10 hrs fasting except for water & refraining from smoking
- *Place specimen on ice and transport to laboratory.
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
used to identify hepatocellular disease of the liver and to monitor improvement or worsening of the disease.
*Previous IM injection may cause elevated levels.
AST (Aspartate aminotransferase)
used to evaluate client with suspected hepatocellular disease (may also be used along with other cardiac markers to evaluate coronary artery occlusive disease)
*Pevious IM injection may cause elevated levels.
- *Greatly Increased-- Acute pancreatitis
- level starts rising 3-6 hrs after the onset of pain,
- peaks in about 24 hrs
- returns to normal in 2-3 days after the onset of pain
a pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
- Conjugated Bilirubin 0-0.3 mg/dL
- Unconjugated Bilirubin 0.1-1 mg/dL
- Total Bilirubin: lower than 1.5 mg/dL
- *4 hrs fasting before test
- *may cause elevated result: alcohol, morphine sulfate, theophylline, ascorbic acid, aspirin
- Cholesterol: 140-199 mg/dL
- LDL: lower than 130 mg/dL
- HDL: 30-70 mg/dL
* Increased-- use of oral contraceptives
* Increased-- Addison's disease, Autoimmune collagen disorders, Chronic infection, Crohn's Disease
- Male Adult: 4.5-8 mg/dL
- Female Adult: 2.5-6.2 mg/dL
*Increased amount of deposit in joints and soft tissue---> GOUT
*Increased cellular turnover, as well as slowed renal excretion of uric acid---> hyperuricemia