Major CO2 carriers in the blood. Rank them in order of concentrations
HCO3/CO2 > Hemoglobin > Plasma Proteins
What's the effect of having a open system for CO2 in the lungs in terms of pH balance?
Having an open system allows for PCO2 to remain 40 mm of Hg. Thus, when an acid or a base is added, there is a very small change in pH.
In a closed system PCO2 will change and there would large changes in pH according to the equation pH = 6.1 + log [HCO3]/alpha*PCO2
What is Carbonic anhydrase or Dehydratase?
Enzyme essential for H2CO3 and HCO3 transfer. super fast!
How does breathing effect pH
Increased ventilation causes a decrease in H2CO3 or CO2 tension and an increase in pH.
Is Venous blood more acidic or basic? and why?
Venous blood is slightly more acidic due to the increased tension of CO2 gas carried from metabolism compared to arterial blood. This is the dynamic concept of "open" or physiological versus "closed" or "test tube" system.
How do the Kidneys regulate pH? lungs?
The kidneys control the HCO3 retention and release (the basic half of the equation). Whereas the lungs control the Carbon dioxide (the acidic half of the equation).
Hence the mnemonic pH= 6.1 + kidney/lung
But specifically, the distal side of the nephron works on H+ secretion. The proximal side works on NaHCO3 recovery
What's the difference between metabolic and respiratory disorders?
Metabolic disorders effect the concentration of HCO3 (kidneys)
Respiratory disorders effect the concentration of PCO2 (lungs)
How much HCO3 do the kidneys keep in the blood for physiological pH