AFAA Section 5

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  1. Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance the cardiovascular system, and prevent injuries.
    • Body weight = exercise in water is an efficient way to expend energy, safe without fear of falling, and an effective way to build muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance
    • Cardiovascular system = decreases circulatory resistance and improves heart contraction efficiency
    • Injuries = minimizes impact of gravity and buoyancy allows safer extension/range of motion
  2. What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design?
    • Essential structure of class would be similar but for water must consider other aspects
    • different depths
    • temperature
    • pool supervision
    • buoyancy and resistance (the same exercises on land may be concentric but in water are concentric and eccentric)
    • use of different equipment, including surface area/buoyancy equipment
  3. State the difference between circuit and interval training methods.
    • Circuit = short exercise time, rotate through varied exercises to work different muscle groups, rest between each circuit; more for aerobic maintenance and muscular strength and endurance
    • Interval = alternating high intensity work with low intensity recovery, pushes aerobic and anaerobic systems to the max
  4. List and summarize the two circuit training formats.
    • Super circuits = including cardio work (2-3 minutes) between weight training stations (1 minute)
    • Peripheral heart action system = multiple sequences, each sequence is for different muscle groups, 3 times through a sequence and then switch to next; keeps blood moving from one part of the body to the next
  5. Define work-to-recovery ratio.
    Work is the higher intensity portion, the recovery/active recovery is the lower intensity portion of interval training. The two together make a cycle, and the relationship between the two periods is the ratio. 3 minutes of jogging followed by 1 minute of sprinting is work-to-recovery of 1:3.
  6. List a minimum of four things one should do to ensure they are riding an indoor cycle properly.
    • learn the sit and stand movements
    • minimize weight on the hands
    • start slow, sit up straight if needed
    • stand with body weight over the pedals
    • increase resistance to stand for stable pedal stroke and slow down
    • decrease resistance when you sit again
  7. List a minimum of three things an instructor should consider when designing an indoor cycling class.
    • choice of music
    • heart rate increases very easily with cycling so be cautious
    • smooth transitions are important
    • adjust for needs of the class
    • coaching techniques - off the bike, visualizations, counting
  8. For group exercise, AFAA recommends how many repetitions of resistance training exercises?
    8-25, depending on whether the focus is strength or endurance
  9. List a minimum of four muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing group.
    • external shoulder rotators
    • rear deltoid
    • mid trapezius & rhomboids
    • lower trapezius
    • abdominals
    • spinal erectors
    • inner quadriceps
    • tibialis anterior
  10. List a minimum of four muscles that tend to be tight.
    • internal shoulder
    • front deltoid
    • pectorals
    • upper trapezius
    • spinal erectors
    • iliopsoas
    • hamstrings
    • gastrocnemius
  11. Discuss constant vs. variable resistance and what form of equipment used in a group exercise class would resembe variable resistance.
    • constant = resistance against target muscle doesn't vary through range of motion, uses free weights, can't train through full ROM against gravity typically
    • variable = achieve maximum muscular involvement, uses special machines to change applied force and match muscle strength curve
    • group exercise = elastic bands/tubing is similar to variable resistance
  12. List seven action steps for designing a resistance tubing class.
    • check tubes for holes/tears
    • avoid pulling tube to face
    • good resistance for proper form and alignment
    • avoid tight grip on the handles
    • hand should be in line with forearm, wrists neutral
    • continuous tension in tube, controlled movement
    • smooth/controlled pace on lift and lower
  13. List a minimum of three strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting.
    • primary muscle group, 1-3 sets of 4-16 reps, then move to next muscle group (like a traditional weight room approach)
    • one set of exercise to the next exercise and so on, repeat whole series
    • exercise patterns - arm combo, leg combo, arm/leg combo (choreographed)
  14. List the seven principles of mat science.
    • balance
    • extension
    • alignment
    • range of motion
    • progression
    • flow
    • breath
  15. List a minimum of four guidelines for mat class format.
    • warm-up and breathing
    • progressive series to build heat
    • increase strength and flexibility throughout the workout body
    • finish with a cool down
    • vary activities/progressions/intensity each session
    • different purpose for each class (focal points)
    • move fluidly and mindfully
    • modify for special needs
  16. What are the guidelines for various participant step levels?
    • Level 1 - new to step & exercise; step 4 inches high, 10-20 minutes
    • Level 2 - new to step but not exercise; step 4-6 inches, 10-20 minutes
    • Level 3 - regular stepper; step 4-8 inches, 20-60 minutes
    • Level 4 - advanced stepper; step 4-10 inches, 20-60 minutes
  17. What are the appropriate beats per minute for the different portions of a step class?
    • warm-up = 120-134 bpm
    • cardio = 118-128 bpm
    • muscle = 120-134 bpm
  18. List a minimum of three proper body alignment techniques and three stepping techniques.
    • Alignment:
    • shoulders back and relaxed
    • abs contracted
    • don't lock knees
    • chest lifted
    • neutral spine
    • avoid twisting joints

    • Stepping:
    • full body lean
    • knee flexion less than 90 degrees when bearing weight
    • focus on feet first
    • step to the center of the step
    • step lightly
    • watch the platform sometimes
    • stay close to the step when stepping down
  19. How can one prevent knee injury while stepping?
    • don't bend knee more than 90 degrees when bearing weight
    • don't pivot when weight bearing
Card Set:
AFAA Section 5

How to Teach - Multitraining Review - Chapters 24, 27, 29, 31
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