AFAA Section 5
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Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance the cardiovascular system, and prevent injuries.
- Body weight = exercise in water is an efficient way to expend energy, safe without fear of falling, and an effective way to build muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance
- Cardiovascular system = decreases circulatory resistance and improves heart contraction efficiency
- Injuries = minimizes impact of gravity and buoyancy allows safer extension/range of motion
What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design?
- Essential structure of class would be similar but for water must consider other aspects
- different depths
- pool supervision
- buoyancy and resistance (the same exercises on land may be concentric but in water are concentric and eccentric)
- use of different equipment, including surface area/buoyancy equipment
State the difference between circuit and interval training methods.
- Circuit = short exercise time, rotate through varied exercises to work different muscle groups, rest between each circuit; more for aerobic maintenance and muscular strength and endurance
- Interval = alternating high intensity work with low intensity recovery, pushes aerobic and anaerobic systems to the max
List and summarize the two circuit training formats.
- Super circuits = including cardio work (2-3 minutes) between weight training stations (1 minute)
- Peripheral heart action system = multiple sequences, each sequence is for different muscle groups, 3 times through a sequence and then switch to next; keeps blood moving from one part of the body to the next
Define work-to-recovery ratio.
Work is the higher intensity portion, the recovery/active recovery is the lower intensity portion of interval training. The two together make a cycle, and the relationship between the two periods is the ratio. 3 minutes of jogging followed by 1 minute of sprinting is work-to-recovery of 1:3.
List a minimum of four things one should do to ensure they are riding an indoor cycle properly.
- learn the sit and stand movements
- minimize weight on the hands
- start slow, sit up straight if needed
- stand with body weight over the pedals
- increase resistance to stand for stable pedal stroke and slow down
- decrease resistance when you sit again
List a minimum of three things an instructor should consider when designing an indoor cycling class.
- choice of music
- heart rate increases very easily with cycling so be cautious
- smooth transitions are important
- adjust for needs of the class
- coaching techniques - off the bike, visualizations, counting
For group exercise, AFAA recommends how many repetitions of resistance training exercises?
8-25, depending on whether the focus is strength or endurance
List a minimum of four muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing group.
- external shoulder rotators
- rear deltoid
- mid trapezius & rhomboids
- lower trapezius
- spinal erectors
- inner quadriceps
- tibialis anterior
List a minimum of four muscles that tend to be tight.
- internal shoulder
- front deltoid
- upper trapezius
- spinal erectors
Discuss constant vs. variable resistance and what form of equipment used in a group exercise class would resembe variable resistance.
- constant = resistance against target muscle doesn't vary through range of motion, uses free weights, can't train through full ROM against gravity typically
- variable = achieve maximum muscular involvement, uses special machines to change applied force and match muscle strength curve
- group exercise = elastic bands/tubing is similar to variable resistance
List seven action steps for designing a resistance tubing class.
- check tubes for holes/tears
- avoid pulling tube to face
- good resistance for proper form and alignment
- avoid tight grip on the handles
- hand should be in line with forearm, wrists neutral
- continuous tension in tube, controlled movement
- smooth/controlled pace on lift and lower
List a minimum of three strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting.
- primary muscle group, 1-3 sets of 4-16 reps, then move to next muscle group (like a traditional weight room approach)
- one set of exercise to the next exercise and so on, repeat whole series
- exercise patterns - arm combo, leg combo, arm/leg combo (choreographed)
List the seven principles of mat science.
- range of motion
List a minimum of four guidelines for mat class format.
- warm-up and breathing
- progressive series to build heat
- increase strength and flexibility throughout the workout body
- finish with a cool down
- vary activities/progressions/intensity each session
- different purpose for each class (focal points)
- move fluidly and mindfully
- modify for special needs
What are the guidelines for various participant step levels?
- Level 1 - new to step & exercise; step 4 inches high, 10-20 minutes
- Level 2 - new to step but not exercise; step 4-6 inches, 10-20 minutes
- Level 3 - regular stepper; step 4-8 inches, 20-60 minutes
- Level 4 - advanced stepper; step 4-10 inches, 20-60 minutes
What are the appropriate beats per minute for the different portions of a step class?
- warm-up = 120-134 bpm
- cardio = 118-128 bpm
- muscle = 120-134 bpm
List a minimum of three proper body alignment techniques and three stepping techniques.
- shoulders back and relaxed
- abs contracted
- don't lock knees
- chest lifted
- neutral spine
- avoid twisting joints
- full body lean
- knee flexion less than 90 degrees when bearing weight
- focus on feet first
- step to the center of the step
- step lightly
- watch the platform sometimes
- stay close to the step when stepping down
How can one prevent knee injury while stepping?
- don't bend knee more than 90 degrees when bearing weight
- don't pivot when weight bearing
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