AFAA Section 6
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What does EIA stand for and how can it be prevented?
- Exercise induced asthma - prevent with:
- medication (inhaler)
- gradually increasing intensity
- avoid exercise when high pollen count or very cold
- humid is best (water exercise good)
- use inhaler before exercise
- breathe through nose
- extended warm-up/cool-down
List at least 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease.
- screen first
- get doctor release if moderate or high risk
- comply with target heart rate range and RPE
- follow doctor recommendations
- have a record of medications and their effects on exercise
- participant should tell instructor if any signs or symptoms appear
- don't exceed level of expertise
- start with low intensity and gradually increase but avoid high intensity
List at least 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis.
- low impact is better
- stretch daily
- frequent, low impact exercise is best
- reduce duration and intensity when problem flares up
- isometric exercises are good
- extended warm-up and cool down
- shouldn't have pain more than 2 hours after exercise
- weight loss will help alleviate pressure on joints
- monitor change in medications
List at least four precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class.
- monitor blood sugar regularly
- avoid exercise during peak of insulin activity
- exercise at the same time each day
- know symptoms of hypoglycemia
- inject insulin into muscle not being used during exercise
- always carry a carb snack
- eat a carb snack before exercise
- check feet often
List 8 exercise guidelines for a participant with hypertension.
- emphasize cardio, lower intensity (40-70% HRR)
- exercise most days 30-60 minutes
- avoid high intensity and isometric exercises
- resistance training should have low weight, lots of reps
- avoid Valsalva maneuver
- use RPE because medications can alter heart rate
- avoid having the feet above the head
- relaxation and stress management techniques are important
What is the preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range?
Use RPE, 5-6 on the 10-point scale
What method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoporosis?
slow stretching and isometric exercises
List two methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults.
List at least four program design guidelines for the older adult.
- know how to monitor workloads
- be alert for overexertion
- monitor intensity every 4-5 minutes during cardio training
- slow/controlled movement through full range of motion for resistance
- cardio should be simple, easy to follow, avoid lateral moves
- avoid spinal flexion
- avoid closed eyes, head below heart, twisting head, anything that may cause dizziness
List at least three exercise considerations during pregnancy.
- there are cardiovascular changes, avoid high intensity
- hormone and anatomy changes, stretch and strength important to minimize spine stress
- pelvic floor muscles are important, exercise them to keep them strong
- leg cramps common, flext feet, don't sit with crossed legs
- stay hydrated
- avoid overheating
List five things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with pregnant women.
- don't worry about fitness adaptations, goal should be increased energy
- encourage a reduced rate if the woman is an overexerciser
- watch for warning signs of overexertion
- provide modifications for exercise modes
- refer to doctor if any uncertainty or an adverse reaction
Discuss three exercise modalities that pregnant women can perform, along with any risks and modifications that should be taken.
- Water = good posture, hydrate, snack, transition slowly
- Dance = no jumping, reduce tempo and direction change
- Cycling = raise handlebars, support belt helps
- Pilates = modify supine after 20 weeks
- Step = less than 6 inches, 4 during last trimester, slower tempo
List a minimum of four exercise recommendations outlined by the USDHHS and ACSM for youth.
- 60+ minutes 3-4 times a week, moderate to high intensity
- gradually increase frequency and time for obese kids
- large muscle groups should be working
- sustained exercise for adolescents, bouts for younger children
- recreational sports are good
- heart rate monitoring is optional, RPE is best
List a minimum of three general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents.
- movement should be slow and controlled
- older kids (10-12) can use free weights but they should be light
- careful about using machines that are designed for adults
- can do manual training with partner if they can listen to directions
- isometric and breathing technique are good to focus on
- supervision important
- make sure to warm up and cool down
- avoid power lifting
List a minimum of three special considerations regarding resistance training in children and adolescents.
- equipment and activity should be modified to the age/size/strength/maturity of participant
- comprehensive training, include motor skills and fitness level
- only increase resistance when good form is achieved
- focus on technique and participation, not amount of resistance
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