b2 lab t3

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b2 lab t3
2012-08-02 18:56:18

Dogfish shark and fetal pig
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  1. Shark spiracles
    holes posterior to eyes, allow water in when moving to help with respiration (leads to misconception that sharks can only breathe when moving)
  2. shark nostrils
    • holes on ventral snout. 
    • Outstanding sense of smell--2/3 of brain is dedicated to olfactory.  There are lobes for each nostril, and they can tell depth perception off scent alone. 
  3. Ampullae of Lorenzini
    • tiny holes on ventral surface of nose (black dots or "cups")
    • receive input--electromagnetic, temperature, disturbance to signal an organism nearby
  4. Shark Cloaca
    single exit of dogfish shark, for liquid and solid waste, sperm in and sperm out. 
  5. Shark esophagus
    huge (comparatively).  Often do not chew. 
  6. Shark stomach
    • "J"-shaped.  Starts when esophagus softens. 
    • 2 sections: Cardiac (large) and Pyloric (small).  Food gets stuck in Cardiac until it digests enough to fit into Pyloric. 
  7. Spiral Intestines
    Shark.  Thick and textured, like a spiral staircase to keep shark streamlined.  Full of ruggae. 
  8. Ruggae
    flaps and valves in a shark's spiral intestine. 
  9. Shark Spleen
    • triangle of grey on intestines (opposite pancreas). 
    • Cleans.  Keeps RBCs to 120 day limit and holds WBCs (barracks)
  10. Shark Pancreas
    • Loop at end of stomach/beginning of intestines.  Opposite spleen. 
    • secretes digestive enzymes and regulates blood sugar. 
  11. Shark liver
    • Long green lobes on either side of alimentary canal.  HUGE
    • filters blood from digestive tract, stopping what you eat from killing you. 
    • Produces bile, making the stomach inhospitable and breaking down fats. 
  12. Shark gallbladder
    • Tiny green piece attached at top of liver (wrinkly). 
    • Bladder that holds the bile.  Pumps it into small intestine. 
  13. Shark anal gland
    • Long finger near anus/intestines. 
    • Regulates salt levels.  Filters blood, excretes extra salt. 
  14. Shark Testes
    • Large paler organs, beneath stomach. 
    • Produce sperm. 
    • Higher in body to keep them warm. 
  15. Shark heart
    High in chest. 2 chambered.  Blood enters through Sinus Venosus (cavity), flows into Atrium (behind), into ventricle (front, harder part) and out trucus arteriosis. 
  16. Sinus venosus
    Cavity that blood flows from (like vena cava) before going into the atrium of a dogfish shark. 
  17. truncus arteriosis
    Vessel that blood flows into (like aorta) upon leaving the ventricle of a dogfish shark. 
  18. Fetal pig Nares
    entrance to nostrils
  19. Fetal pig hard palate
    • front of roof of mouth. 
    • Hard to protect sinus cavity from being punctured by food. 
  20. fetal pig soft palate
    • back of roof of mouth
    • Soft so that an opening (Nasopharynx) can connect the nose to the trachea. 
  21. fetal pig epiglottis
    • Sticking-up round thing at back of throat.  Above glottis (entrance to trachea). 
    • Closes over trachea when swallowing to stop food from going in there. 
  22. fetal pig trachea
    • hard, segmented tube in throat, on top of esophagus, runs from epiglottis through larynx to lungs. 
    • Breathing tube. Hard to prevent collapse. 
  23. fetal pig esophagus
    • Soft tube running down back of throat, under trachea.  Runs from throat to stomach. 
    • Softer to expand for food. 
  24. fetal pig larynx
    Big hard fleshy ball on trachea.  Contains vocal cords.  Modifies sound to allow animals to vocalize. 
  25. fetal pig heart
    • 4-chambered. 
    • Ball inside lungs. Surrounded by thin, membranous pericardial sac. 
  26. Fetal pig lungs
    • top shell-like organs surrounding heart. 
    • Respiration. 
  27. fetal pig diaphragm
    muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavities.  Runs below heart and above liver. 
  28. fetal pig liver
    • Shell-like organ just below diaphragm. 
    • filters digestive blood
  29. fetal pig gallbladder
    • stores bile. 
    • Little nodule on base-center of liver
  30. fetal pig pancreas
    • glucose regulation and digestive enzymes
    • between spleen and large intestine (right side)
  31. fetal pig spleen
    • below stomach (right side), triangular-ish.
    • filters RBCs, kills after 120 days, stores WBCs.  Largest lymph organ
  32. fetal pig small intestine
    • left side, tumble of membranes. 
    • Digestion and absorption.  Bile goes here to break down fats. 
  33. fetal pig spiral colon
    • right side--ridged loop below spleen. 
    • Absorption of water and passage for unabsorbed food. 
  34. fetal pig cecum
    • blind pouch at the beginning of large intestine. 
    • Fermenting vat. 
    • Useless one called appendix in humans. 
  35. fetal pig kidneys
    • bean-shaped organs in back of animal
    • filter body blood