Research methods 2
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. What would you like to do?
What are the 7 steps of conducting a research study I will identify?
- 1. Identify the research problem
- 2. Review the literature
- 3. Specifying a PURPOSE for the research
- 4. DESIGN the data collection method and forms
- 5. Collecting data
- 6. Analyzing and interpreting data
- 7. Reporting and evaluating research
What does the acronym IRSDCAR stand for?
- Specify (PURPOSE)
"The IRS will demolish your car!"
What is a research problem?
These needs, issues, or controversies that arise out of tourism/hospitality literature and industry are referred to as research problems.
When I identify a research problem:
- I am identifying a issue or problem in tourism/hospitality that needs to be resolved
- I am specifying an issue to study.
- I am developing a justification for studying it
- I am suggesting the importance of the study for select audiences that will read the manuscript
- In focusing on a problem, I am limiting the subject matter and focusing attention on a specific aspect of study.
- I will state my research problem in the introductory section of my research paper and provide a rationale for their importance.
When I identify the problem in the introduction of my paper, it is often called a 'statement of the problem.' What is the statement of the problem? What does this section of my introduction consist of?
- The research problem is part of a larger written section called the “statement of the problem.”
- This section includes: the topic, the problem, a justiﬁcation for the problem, and the importance of studying it for speciﬁc audiences such as industry professionals, or researchers.
When I review the literature:
- It is important to know who has studied research problem I plan to examine
- I do not want to replicate prior research but rather create new research or extend/add to prior research
- Sometimes it adds value to replicate the research with a different sample or in a different setting
- But I want to be sure that what I am doing hasn’t already been done
- I want to build on existing knowledge or add to the accumulation of findings on a specific topic.
What does reviewing the literature mean?
- Reviewing the literature means locating summaries, books, journals, and publications on a topic, selectively choosing which literature to include in my review, then summarizing the literature in the written report.
- Being skilled at locating literature on a topic is very
- Utilizing library resources, online catalogs,search engines,
- google scholar, and databases on the library website
- It is important to choose and evaluate thequality of research on my topic
- Then summarize in the lit review
- The literature review helps to justify need forthe research
- problem and suggests potential purposes and research questions for the study.
- The researcher uses the literature to helpjustify the current
- research problem for the report.
- Somewhere in the literature, you hope to findsomeone that mentioned the importance or need for your current study or arecommendation for your current study
I specify my purpose of my research in step 3 using a ___________ .
What is a purpose statement?
- This statement conveys the overall objective or intent of the research
- The purpose statement introduces the entire study, and signals the procedures I will use to collect data, and indicates the types of results I hope to find
The purpose for the research consists of identifying the major intent or objective of a study and narrowing it into specific ________ or __________
research question or hypotheses.
Some characteristics of a purpose statement:
- The purpose statement contains the major focus of the study, the participants in the study, and the location or site of the inquiry
- The purpose statement is then narrowed to research questions or predictions that I plan to answer in my research study
- In quantitative research, the researcher identifies a research problem based on trends in the field or on the need to explain why something occurs
Difference between primary data and secondary data?
- In the majority of my studies, I will be using primary datarather than secondary data.
- For this study, I will be collecting primary data.
- Primary data is collected specificallyfor the study while secondary datais collected for some other reason by a third party, and is used for someoneelse’s study (with permission from the data collector).
When I design the data collection method and forms:
- The data collected for this study will be in questionnaire form.
- Event attendees will be approached randomly as they are leaving the event.
- Other methods of data collection could be requesting attendees to complete an online survey after attending the event or mailing the survey, including a return envelope with a raffle drawing for added incentive for the participants.
- The survey design will consist of fixed answers rather than
- open-ended answers.
- All items will consist of 7pt Likert-Type statements (Strongly Disagree – Strongly agree).
- Respondents will indicate a response which best fits their feeling about each statement.
- All of the statements will be structured and undisguised, meaning that the question’s purpose is clear, and the respondants are limited to one choice on the 7pt Likert scale.
- In this study I would design the survey in steps.
- I know the type of information I am seeking, push-pull motivational items, many of which I will acquire from the REP scale.
- I may add some factors/items that have been used in similar studies.
- In order to determine the appropriate items that reflect push/pull motivations for an event, I will conduct a focus group of prior event attendees to determine the most significant motivations that account for event attraction and positive outcomes.
- The focus group was designed to uncover the motives that account for attraction to a ______ event and the subsequent attachment and positive outcomes.
- The focus group will consist of 10-12 individuals from a recent culinary event.
- The focus group will concentrate on participants’ experiences of the event to better understand the motives leading to event participation, as well as the attachment process.
- A list of possible questions for the focus group will be prepared to serve as a guide for the session. These questions will be developed with the goal of facilitating discussion of motivation. The list of questions will be based on participants’ perceived motives and needs to be satisfied through event participation. Participants for the focus groups will be recruited via mass e-mails sent out by event organizers. These e-mails will instruct recipients to contact the researcher if they are interested and available. After the focus groups are completed, transcriptions will be analyzed and consistsof the following steps suggested by Creswell
- When designing the questionnaire I need to determine what
- imformation will be sought and the type of questionnaire that will be used.
- I need to determine the method of administration.
- There are different ways I can administer the survey. I can hire a company to survey event attendees for me, providing an online survey.
- I should arrange in the questions in order of the proposed SEM path model relationships.
- Push-pull motivations will be first in the survey followed by the questions on event attachment, followed by the questions representing positive outcomes.
- I need to determine the sample selection process.
- Will it be randomized (i.e. approach every 5th person that walks by)?
- I need to identify how large I want the sample to be.
- My goal for the sample number should be at minimum, greater than 300 but my preference is 500.
- I currently have 862 in my whitewater rafting study.
- The sample will be a convenience sample, a nonprobability sample of people that happen to be in the area where I am surveying.
To analyze my focus group data:
- First, each transcription was read thoroughly to obtain a general overview of the information.
- Next, the transcriptions will be coded looking for text related to individuals’ motivation for event participation.
- The themes uncovered are then presented narratively within the Results chapter to further highlight the findings from the data.
Why do I collect data in the 5th step?
I collect data In order to provide answers to research questions and hypotheses.
What is collecting data?
- Collecting data means identifying and selecting individuals for a study,obtaining their permission to study them, and gathering information by asking people questions.
- In the report, the process of collecting data goes in the methods orprocedures section·
- Mechanics and administration of data collection
What do I need to do before collecting data?
IRB approval (Include what I need to submit to IRB)
The 6th step: Analyzing and interpreting data is important because:
- During or immediately after data collection, I need to make sense of the information supplied by individuals in the study.
- Analysis consists of ‘taking the data apart’ to determine individual responses and then ‘putting it together to summarize it.’
- Analyzing and interpreting the data involves drawing conclusions about it, representing it in tables, figures, and pictures to summarize it, and explaining the conclusions in words to provide answers to your research questions.
- I need to make sure the model fits the data and the instrument is valid and reliable.
7. The last step is writing the research report.
- This is when I develop the written report and distribute it to select audiences.
- These audiences can include other scholars, journal editors, students, industry publications, industry professionals.
- When we report research, we need to decide on the audience.
- The report should be structured in a format acceptable to these audiences.
- More wordiness and professional for scholars
- Less wordiness and easy to understand for laypeople and industry professionals
- The structure for the research report varies for each audience.
- Be sure that my report is suitable for the intended audience
Making sense out of statistical analysis
I plan on performing a CFA of the Push-pull, attachment and outcome variables. I expect some of the items would be eliminated based on the factor loadings. I would determine the number of factors for the push and pull measures by observing if how many facotrs had an eigenvalue greater than 1. I would keep measurement items with beta values greater than 0.4. After this I would group the items together and name the factors for the study. I would use these factors as the independent variables leading to place attachment and positive outcomes such as word-of-mouth and satisfaction.
What would you like to do?
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