Neuro review week 6 material

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Neuro review week 6 material
2012-08-05 00:04:07

Review for NFMC
Show Answers:

    • A. Cerebral aquaduct
    • B.Fourth Ventricle
    • C. Interventricular Foramen
    • D.Lateral Ventricle
    • E. Third ventricle
    • A. Cerebral aquaduct
    • B.Fourth Ventricle
    • C. Interventricular Foramen
    • D.Lateral Ventricle
    • E. Third ventricle
  1. What are the lateral Ventricles?
    And with which lobe of the brain does each region correspond?
    Pair of "C"- shaped structures with "horns."

    • Region                Lobe
    • Ant. horn              Frontal
    • Body                    Parietal
    • Inf. horn               Temporal
    • Post. horn            Occipital
  2. What does the interventricular foramen connect?
    Lateral Ventricles and third ventricle
  3. What does the cerebral aquaduct connect?
    3rd and 4th ventricles
  4. What forms the third ventricle?
    • Floor - hypothalamus
    • Walls - right/left thalamus
  5. Fourth ventricle:
    -to where does it extend to form recesses?
    -what does it become in the spinal cord
    • Laterally into the cerebral hemispheres
    • central canal (after narrowing inferiorly)
  6. What are the ependyma and where are they located?
    • neuroglial cells
    • line ventricles
  7. Choroid plexus:
    -What is it?
    -What does it do?
    -Where is it located?
    • specialized capillaries covered with ependymal cells
    • produces CSF
    • in central parts of all ventricles
  8. CSF:
    -what is it?
    -Where is it located?
    -What is its purpose?
    • Clear lymph-like fluid that is produced by the choroid plexus
    • located in the lateral, third & fourth ventricles
    • protective cushion for the brain and spinal cord
  9. Define arachnoid granulations (villi)
    Mushroom-like (finger-like) projections that protrude into the dural sinuses of the brain, and allow CSF to exit the brain, and enter the blood stream (venous system)
  10. From what location does most CSF arise?
    Lateral ventricles
  11. Meninges:
    -What are they?
    -What is their function?
    • Layers of protective covering that surrounds CNS
    • With CSF, cradles and suspends brain and spinal cord within bony protection (cushion/protect brain & spinal cord)
  12. What are the two layers of dura mater and what are the channels they create called?
    • Periosteal layer & meningeal layer
    • Dural sinuses
  13. Define falx cerebri
    Dura mater separating the right & left cerebral hemispheres
  14. Define tentorium cerebelli
    Dura mater separating occipital lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  15. Define falx cerebelli
    Dura mater seperating the two cerebellar hemispheres
  16. Arachnoid trabeculaes:
    -What are they?
    -From where do they originate?
    -What do they do?
    • Fibrous filaments
    • Extend from the arachnoid to the pia
    • Help to “anchor” the brain to prevent it from excessive movement in cases of sudden acceleration or deceleration
  17. Pia mater:
    - Describe it
    - Explain its functions
    • very thin innner layer that clings to the brains surface, dipping into grooves or contours
    • Nourishment (it contains many nerves and blood vessels)
  18. What is the "conus medularis?"
    What extends from the conus medularis?
    • The cone shaped end of the spinal cord.
    • The filum terminale.
  19. What is the filum terminale?
    How long is it?
    To what does it attach?
    What is its purpose?
    • spinal pia mater gathered at the end of the conus medullaris into a thin, non-nervous filament.
    • ~20cm
    • the periosteum of the 1st coccygeal vertebra
    • to anchor and stabilize the spinal cord
  20. What is the Lumbar Cistern?
    The large subarachnoid space at the level of the conus medullaris.
  21. Dentate Ligaments:
    -What are they?
    -Where are they located?
    -To what do they attach?
    -What is ther function?
    • Tooth-like extension from the pia mater of the spinal cord.
    • Located on each side of the entire spinal cord.
    • Attached to the arachnoid and dura mater.
    • To anchor and stabilize the spinal cord.
  22. Meningitis:
    -Common etiology?
    -What part of the meninges is affected?
    -What are possible complications?
    -Which form is more dangerous?
    • Inflammation of the meninges.
    • Bacteria or virus invading the CSF.
    • Dura may be affected, but pia and arachnoid are more common.
    • Blindness, loss of hearing, mental retardation, paralysis & death.
    • Bacterial.
  23. What is the epidural space?
    What is it filled with?
    • Space between the dura mater and the periosteum of the bone.
    • Loose CT and fat.
  24. What is the subdural space?
    What is it filled with?
    • Space between the meningeal layer of dura mater and arachnoid.
    • Thin film of fluid.