Oncology

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Author:
tkayrm
ID:
165019
Filename:
Oncology
Updated:
2012-08-05 17:38:04
Tags:
oncology cancer glossary
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Description:
glossary words for oncology
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  1. Alopecia
    hair loss
  2. Anaplasia
    cells that lack normal cellular characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin; usually, anaplastic cells are malignant
  3. Apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  4. Biologic response modifier (BRM) therapy
    use of agents or treatment methods that can alter the immunologic relationship between the tumor and the host to provide a therapeutic benefit
  5. Brachytherapy
    delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants
  6. Biopsy
    a diagnostive procedure to remove a small sample of tissue to be examined microscopically to detect malignant cells
  7. Cancer
    a disease process whereby cells proliferate abnormally, ignoring growth-regulating signals in the environment surrounding the cells
  8. Carcinogenesis
    Process of transforming normal cells into malignant cells
  9. Chemotherapy
    use of medications to kill tumor cells by interfering with cellular functions and reproduction
  10. cure
    prolonged survival and disappearance of all evidence of disease so that the patient has the same life expectancy as anyone else in his orher age group
  11. cytokines
    substances produced by cells of the immune system to enhance production and functioning of components of the immune system
  12. dysplasia
    bizarre cell growth resulting in cells that differ in size, shape,or arrangement from other cells of the same type of tissue
  13. extravasation
    leakage of medication from the veins into the subcutaneous tissues
  14. grading
    identification of the type of tissue from which the tumor originated and the degree to which the tumor cells retain the functional and structural characteristics of the tissue of origin
  15. graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
    an immune response initiated by T lymphocytes of donor tissue against the recipient’s tissues (skin,gastrointestinal tract, liver); an undesirable response
  16. graft-versus-tumor effect
    the donor cell response against the malignancy; a desirable response
  17. hyperplasia
    increase in the number of cells of a tissue; most often associated with periods of rapid body growth
  18. malignant
    having cells or processes that are characteristic of cancer
  19. metaplasia
    conversion of one type of mature cell into another type of cell
  20. metastasis
    spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant sites
  21. myelosuppression
    suppression of the blood cell–producing function ofthe bone marrow
  22. nadir
    lowest point of white blood cell depression after therapy that has toxic effects on the bone marrow
  23. neoplasia
    uncontrolled cell growth that follows no physiologic demand
  24. neutropenia
    abnormally low absolute neutrophil count
  25. oncology
    field or study of cancer
  26. palliation
    relief of symptoms and promotion of comfort and quality of life
  27. radiation therapy
    use of ionizing radiation to interrupt the growth of malignant cells
  28. staging
    process of determining the extent of disease, including tumor size and spread or metastasis to distant sites
  29. stomatitis
    inflammation of the oral tissues, often associated with some chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy to the head and neck region
  30. targeted therapies
    cancer treatments that seek to minimize the negative effects on healthy tissues by disrupting specific cancer cell functions, such as malignant transformation, communication pathways, processes for growth and metastasis, and genetic coding
  31. thrombocytopenia
    decrease in the number of circulating platelets; associated with the potential for bleeding
  32. tumor-specific antigen (TSA)
    protein on the membrane of cancer cellsthat distinguishes the malignant cell from a benign cell of the same tissue type
  33. vesicant
    substance that can cause tissue necrosis and damage, particularly when extravasated
  34. xerostomia
    dry oral cavity resulting from decreased function of salivary glands

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