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Yoon and Uysal's (2008) model.
People travel because they are _________ into making travel decisions by internal, psychological forces.
People travel because they are _________ into making travel decisions by external forces of the destination attributes.
In psychology and sociology, the deﬁnitionof motivation is directed toward emotional and cognitive motives (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) or internal andexternal motives (Gnoth, 1997). What is an internal motive?
An internal motive is associated with drives, feelings, and instincts.
In psychology and sociology, the deﬁnitionof motivation is directed toward emotional and cogni-tive motives (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) or internal andexternal motives (Gnoth, 1997). What is an external motive?
An external motive involves mental representations such as knowledge or beliefs.
Why do people travel?
People travel because they are pushed and pulled to do so by‘‘some forces’’ or factors (Dann, 1977, 1981).
Push motivations are related to the ______, while pull motivations are associated with the _______.
Push motivations are related to the tourists’ desire, while pull motivations are associated with the attributes of the destination choices.
What does STCRWSPRP stand for?
Hint: Procedure for developing a questionnaire
- Specify (information sought)
- Type (determine type of questionaire)
- Content (Determine question content)
- Response (Determine form of response)
- Wording (Determine wording of each question)
- Sequence (Determine sequence of questions)
- Physical (Determine physical characteristics of questionare)
- Revise (if needed)
- Pretest (pretest then revise if necessary)
In order to determine convergent and divergent validity, what can we do?
Perform a factor analysis to assess convergent and divergent validity.
Jointly examine both the measurement model (convergent and discriminant validity) and the structural model (nomological validity),using LISREL (Bagozzi, 1980; J6reskog & Sorbom, 1979)
What does CFI stand for in SEM?
comparative fit index
- Others are
- Bentler-Bonnett [sic] normed fit index (BBNFI)
- Normative Fit Index (NFI)
What should CFI be in SEM?
0.90 or greater
What can SEM do that is the most meaningful for construct validity?
its ability to provide evidence of construct validity or the lack thereof through a meaningful confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
- So CFA provides evidence of construct validity, or a lack of construct validity.
In SEM, we should have ____ or more items per construct.
GFI stands for
Goodness of fit index.
For basic or applied research, a reliability of _____ sufficient.
For basic or applied research, a reliability of 0.80 is sufficient (Nunnally 1978).
- Measured with Cronbach's alpha.
- Some use 0.7 as a cutoff.
are factors in a factor analysis kept for the structural equation model.
Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of _________ and, more specifically, _____________ .
Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of reliability and, more specifically, internal consistency
There are four different types of reliability. What is the acronym?
What does TAII stand for?
- Alnernate forms
- Interrater reliability
- Internal consistency reliability
examines the extent to which scores from one sample are stable over time from one test administration to another
Alnernate forms reliability
using two instruments, both measuring the same variables and relating (or correlating) the scores for the same group of individuals to the two instruments.
both instruments need to be very similar
Interal consistancy reliability
The subject's answers should be internally consistant. If someone completes items at the beginning of the instrument one way (e.g., positive about negative effects of tobacco), then they should answer the questions later in the instrument in a similar way (e.g., positive about the health effects of tobacco).
When there are two people observing one or more individuals. The observers need to be trained such that their observations are consistant.
One question to ask with construct validity.
Are the test score interpretations consistent with a conceptual framework for the instrument?
I will more often than not be using _______ scales for my research (Likert Items), but will also use __________ scales for my demographic data.
I will more often than not be using interval/ratio scales for my research (Likert Items), but will also use nominal/categorical scales for my demographic data.
Goodness of fit measures (advantages)
Goodness of fit measures have some obvious advantages in model development. First, they are quantitative indices which can be compared across models so that the best of a set of models can be selected. Secondly, there exist established statistical procedures for testing these measures for significance. Third, they can be used as a means of deducing new or modified models from a set of data. Fourth, they appear as output in canned computer programs, which is no small reason for their prominence in reported research results.
Goodness of fit (CFI, NFI) is a popular measure for ________ .
A high goodness of fit, however, is neither a sufficient nor even a necessary condition for model usefulness.
One can use statistics to calculate discriminant and convergent validity.
In order to determine satisfactory discriminant validity:
Can do a factor analysis to see if items load on the factors they are supposed to.
Can look at the AVE. The avg. variance extracted should be greater than the squared correlation in order to demonstrate satisfactory discriminant validity.
AVE (average variance extracted) for the constructs should be greater than their squared correlation (shared variance).
Can use SEM to check discriminant validity. By setting all the constructs to have a correlation of 1 and do a Chi Square difference test with an unconstrained model to determine if the difference is significant. If the difference is significant than the correlation is different from 1.
In order to determine satisfactory convergent validity:
Useful assessments are composite reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE)
Composite reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) should be equal to or greater than .7 and AVE should be greater than .5.