Final Exam

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  1. TIA
    • Transient Ischemic Attack
    • a temporary localized reduction of blood flow in the brain. Recovery occurs within 24 hours, generally 1-2hours
    • "Little Stroke"
  2. Atresia
    No opening
  3. Anencephaly
    Congenital birth Defect where baby is born without a brain
  4. TIA S&S and Dx
    • S&S:
    • numbness, paresthesias (burning, foot going to sleep) weakness, visual disturbance(tunnel vision)

    šDx: CT scan, MRI/MRA(angiography injecting dye looking at blood vessels, neuro exam , ECG
  5. CVA and Causes
    • Cerebrovascular Accident 
    • 1. Thrombosis (atherosclerosis, blood clot) arteries leading to the brain
    • resulting in occlusion of the vessel.
    • 2. Hemorrhage- blood vessel, such a cerebral artery breaks and bleeding occurs
    • (aneurysm, A-V malformation)
    • 3. Embolus- travels to cerebral arteries and occluded a small vessel (fat, blood clot)
    • š4. Brain Abscess
  6. CVA S&S, Dx, Trx
    • S&S: loss of consciousness, cognitive and motor deficiencies
    • šDx: history of syncope, numbness, H&P, neuro exam, CT scan, MRI/MRA, cerebral angiography
    • Trx: Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Carotid Endarterectomy
  7. Carotid Endarterectomy
    removal of the atherosclerotic plaque along with the inner lining of the affected carotid artery
  8. Concussion
    Brief LOC, Severe could lead to coma
  9. Contusion
    Brain Bruise
  10. Coma
    C'mon really?
  11. Epidural Hematoma
    • Arterial bleed caused by head injury.
    • Between Skull and dura as result of ruptured meningeal artery
  12. Epidural Hematoma SS, Dx, Trx
    • šS&S: puplis dilated, unconsciousness, increased ICP- intracranial pressure
    • Dx: neuro exam, CT exam, MRI/MRA
    • Trx: Craniotomy or Burr Holes
  13. Subdural Hematoma
    • tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes
    • Blunt Trauma
  14. Benign Tumors
    Meninginoma and Schwanoma
  15. Malignant Tumors
    Gliobastoma, Astrocystoma, Medullablastoma, Oligodendroglimo
  16. Tumors SS, Dx, Trx
    • SS: Insidious Onset, Increased Intracranial Pressure, visual disturbances, N&V, vertigo
    • Dx: Neuro exam, CT exam, MRI/MRA
    • Trx: Craniotomy and Biopsy of tumor, SHUNT!
  17. Seizures
    • Causes: H&P, description of seizure, CT scan, MRI/MRA, EEG, r/o underlying  disease process and treat if found, neuro exam
    • Trx: anticonvulsant drugs like topamax and dilantin
  18. Seizures-Aura
    Clam before storm, Dizziness, numbness, and visual disturbances
  19. Seizures- Tonic Clonic/Grand Mal
    • Sudden LOC
    • Falling Down and convulsing
  20. Parkinsons 
    • šDegeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
    • Loss of dopamine (neurotransmitter) made by cells in the basal ganglia
    • šMotor disturbances include stooped posture, shuffling gait, muscle stiffness, and often a tremor of the hands
  21. Parkinsons SS, Dx, Trx
    • šS&S: bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity (facial), shuffling gait, sweating, drooling, dementia in advanced  stages
    • šTrx: medication- dopamine (levodopa, sinemet), cogentin, parlodel
    • Surgery-deep brain stimulation, implant of fetal brain tissue
  22. Alzheimers-Causes, Dx, SS
    • Causes: Atrophy of the cortex and loss of neurons in the frontal and temporal lobes.
    • Dx: a diagnosis of exclusion via testing-cognitive tests, CT scan, MRI, H&P, neuro exam, r/o metabolic disorders
    • S&S: insidious onset of memory loss, distorentation, abstract thinking is impaired, all symptoms become progressively worse
  23. Alzheimers- Trx
    patient and family education, support groups, medications- aricept, memantine
  24. Graves Disease
    because metabolism is faster; the condition is marked by an increase in heart rate (with irregular beats), higher body temperature, hyperactivity, weight loss, and increased peristalsis (diarrhea occurs).
  25. Graves- SS, Dx, Trx
    • SS: nervousness, heat intolerance, weight loss, tremor, tachycardia, thyromegaly (goiter), hair loss, exophthalmos protrusion of the eyeballs
    • Dx: Serum TSH, T3, T4, Thyroid Scan, Ultrasound of thyroid, fine needle aspiration
    • Trx: Radiation and Thyroidectomy
  26. Hypothyroidism SS, Dx, Trx
    • S&S: cold intolerance, bradycardia, cardiomegaly, lethargic, weight gain, thyromegaly
    • Dx: Serum TSH will be up, T3, T4
    • šTrx: thyroid replacement
  27. Type 1 Diabetes SS, Dx, Trx
    • S&S: acute and sudden onset of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, ketosis, coma
    • šDx: FBG- Fasting Blood Glucose over 126 mg/dl on more than one test (normal is less than 100mg/dl), glucose tolerance test (2-3 GTT)
    • šTrx: Insulin- types rapid acting ( 10 minutes onset), short acting (regular insulin- 30 minutes onset) Intermediate acting (1-4 hours onset) Long acting (1-5 hours 24 hours)
    • Drugs-Humo, Nuvo
  28. Type 2 Diabetes-SS, Trx, Dx
    • šS&S: Insidious Onset-developing in a gradual manner, polyuria, polydipsia, blurred vision, fatigue, paresthesias
    • šDx: same at Type 1
    • šTrx: antidiabetic drugs: metformin (glucophage), diabinese, orinase, actose, avandia, prandin, byetta, januvia, insulin if necessary
  29. Ketoacidosis-SS, Dx, Trx
    • increase in ketones when insulin is decreased and fat is
    • being burned
    • šS&S: 1-2 days of polyuria, n&v, stupor, coma, hyperglycemia of 250-1000, serum pH, bicarb and K+ are all out of balance
    • Trx: low dose insulin, replace electrolytes
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Final Exam
2012-08-06 02:46:17

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