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2012-08-05 23:08:13

Chapter 5/6
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  1. Achalasia
    Failure of LES to relax; dilation of esophagus above the narrowing and loss of peristalsis occur.
  2. Abscess
    infected area
  3. Achlorhydria
    Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice
  4. Amylase
    Enzyme that digests starch
  5. Portal hypertension
    Increased pressure in veins near liver
  6. What causes gastric cancer?
    chronic gastritis associated with baterial infection
  7. What causes PUD?
    Helicobacter pylori mixed with hyperacidity and gastric juices
  8. What causes hemorrhoids?
    pregnancy and chronic constipation
  9. Anal fistula
    Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
  10. Antrum
    Lower portion of stomach; muscular grinding chamber that breaks up food and feeds it gradually to the duodenum
  11. aphthous stomatitis
    Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores
  12. Appendix
    Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen
  13. Atresia
    Absence of a normal opening
  14. Barium Swallow
    Study of the esophagus
  15. 3 ways a patient can become jaundiced
    1. any liver disease so that bilirubin is not processed into bile and cannot be excreted in feces, 2. obstruction of bile flow so that bile and bilirubin are not excreted and accumultate in the bloodstream, 3. excessive hemolysis leading to overproduction of bilirubin and high levels in the bloodstream
  16. What enzymes to LFTs test for?
    ALT, AST, alk phos (and bilirubin)
  17. Celiac disease
    autoimmune disorder in which villi in the lining of the small intestine are damaged resulting from dietary glutens
  18. What is a direct bilirubin test?
    elevated conjugated bilirubin (biliary obstruction causing liver disease)
  19. What is an indirect bilirubin test?
    elevated unconjugated bilirubin in serum (excessive hemolysis)
  20. Barrett esophagus
    Premalignant condition; long-term irritation of the esophagus caused by gastric reflux
  21. Biliary atresia
    Congenital absence of the opening from the common bile duct into small intestine
  22. Biliary colic
    Pain from blocked cyst or common bile duct
  23. Biliary tract
    organs and ducts that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum
  24. Borborygmus
    Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the GI tract
  25. Bronchiectasis
    Abnormal widening of the bronchial tubes or their branches
  26. buccal mucosa
    Mucous membrane lining the cheek
  27. Calculi
  28. Cathartics
    Medications to promote movement of stools
  29. Cecal volvulus
    Twisting of cecum
  30. Cecum
    First part of large intestine
  31. celiac
    Pertaining to the abdomen
  32. Celiac artery
    Blood vessel that carries blood to the abdominal organs from the aorta
  33. Celiac sprue
    celiac disease
  34. Cheilitis
    Inflammation of the lip
  35. Cheilosis
    Abnormal condition of the lips
  36. Cholangiectasis
    Abnormal widening or dilation of a bile vessel
  37. Cholangiography
    X-ray recording of bile vessels using radiopaque contrast medium
  38. Cholangiopancreatography
    X-ray recording of bile vessels and the pancreas after administration of contrast material directly into bile and pancreatic tissue
  39. Cholangitis
    Inflammation of bile vessels
  40. cholecystectomy
    Removal of gall bladder
  41. Cholecystojejunostomy
    Formation of a new opening between the gallbladder and jejunum
  42. Cholecystolithiasis
    Abnormal condition of stones in the gallbladder
  43. Choledochal
    Pertaining to the common bile duct
  44. Choledochojejunostomy
    Anastomosis between the common bile duct and the jejunum
  45. Choledocholithiasis
    Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct
  46. Choledochotomy
    Incision of the common bile duct
  47. Cholelithiasis
    Abnormal condition of gallstones
  48. Cholestasis
    Stoppage of bile flow
  49. Cirrhosis
    Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver
  50. Colonic Polyposis
    Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon
  51. common bile duct
    Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine
  52. Constipation
    Difficulty in passing feces
  53. Contrast medium
    Substance that xrays cannot penetrate
  54. Crohn disease; Crohn's
    Inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness, and weight loss
  55. deglutition
  56. Dentibuccal
    Pertaining to teeth and cheeks
  57. Diverticula
    Small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ
  58. Diverticulosis
    Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation
  59. Dysentery
    Painful intestines; marked by inflammation and infection of the colon with abdominal pain and diarrhea
  60. Dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing
  61. Elimination
    Discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes
  62. Emesis
  63. Emulsification
    Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles
  64. Enterocolostomy
    New surgical connection between parts of the small intestine and colon; anastomosis
  65. Eructation
    Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
  66. Esophageal atresia
    Congenital absence of the normal opening from the esophagus to the stomach
  67. Esophageal varices
    Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  68. fatty acids
    Substances produced when fats are digested; combine with glycerol to form fat
  69. Flatus
    Gas expelled through the anus
  70. Fundus
    Upper portion of stomach
  71. Gastroduodenal anastomosis
    New surgical opening between the stomach and duodenum
  72. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); Reflux esophagitis
    Backflow of solids and fluid from the stomach to the mouth against its normal direction of movement
  73. Gastrointestinal endoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of stomach and intestines
  74. Gastrojejunostomy
    New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; anastomosis
  75. Gingivectomy
    Removal of gums tissue
  76. Glycogenolysis
    Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar
  77. Glycolysis
    Breakdown of sugar to release energy in body cells
  78. Hematochezia
    Passage of bright red blood from the rectum
  79. Herniorrhaphy
    Suture a hernia
  80. Herpetic stomatitis
    Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus.
  81. hydrochloric acid
    Strong acid present in a dilute form in the stomach
  82. Hypoglossal
    Pertaining to below the tongue
  83. Icterus
    Jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
  84. ileocecal sphincter
    Rings of muscle between the ileum and cecum
  85. Ileus
    Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines
  86. Inflammatory bowel disease
    Severe inflammation of the small and large intestine; Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
  87. Intussusception
    One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines
  88. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    Abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating associated with stress and tension
  89. Labioglossopharyngeal
    Pertaining to the lips, tongue, and throat
  90. Lithogenesis
    Formation of stones
  91. Liver function tests
    Tests for presence of enzymes and bilirubin in blood or serum
  92. lower esophageal sphincter
    Ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach
  93. Lower gastrointestinal series
    X-ray imaging of the small and large intestines after injecting barium into the rectum; barium enema
  94. Lymphangiectasia
    Widening or dilation of lymph vessels
  95. Lysis
    Destruction, breakdown
  96. Mesocolon
    Part of mesentery attached to colon
  97. Odynophagia
    Painful swallowing
  98. Palatopharyngoplasty
    Suture of the roof of the mouth and throat*
  99. paralytic ileus
    Acute, transient loss of peristalsis
  100. Parenteral
    Pertaining to a route other than through the GI tract
  101. parotid gland
    Salivary gland within the cheek, anterior to the ear
  102. Peptic Ulcer
    Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum
  103. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG tube or G tube)
    Tube inserted through the abdomen into the stomach to deliver food and liquids when swallowing is impossible
  104. Periodonist
    Specialist in the treating the gums
  105. Periodontal disease (gingivitis)
    Inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone
  106. Periodontal membrane
    Membrane that surrounds the tooth in the tooth socket
  107. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum
  108. Polyphagia
    Excessive eating
  109. Postprandial
    After a meal
  110. Proctosigmoidoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon, anus, and rectum
  111. Proptosis
    Forward protrusion of the eyeballs
  112. Protease
    Enzymes that digests proteins
  113. pyloric sphincter
    Ring of muscle surrounding the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
  114. Pyloroplasty
    Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter
  115. Rectal carcinoma
    Malignant tumor of the rectum*
  116. Rectocele
    Hernia of the rectum
  117. Rectum
    Final section of the colon
  118. Rugae
    Folds or creases in the mucus membrane of the stomach or hard palate of the mouth
  119. Sialadenectomy
    Removal of salivary glands
  120. Sialadenitis
    Inflammation of a salivary gland
  121. Sialolith
    Salivary gland stone
  122. sigmoid colon
    Distal, lower end of the colon
  123. Splenic flexure
    Downward bend of the colon on the left side of the body toward the descending colon
  124. Stool culture
    Test for microorganisms in feces
  125. Stool guaiac
    Test for detection of occult blood in feces
  126. Ulcerative colitis
    Inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; inflammatory bowel disease
  127. Uvula
    Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth
  128. Villi
    Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids
  129. Volvulus
    Twisting of the intestine upon itself
  130. What is the function of the uvula?
    aids in production of sounds/speech
  131. What is the function of the tongue?
    Moves food around during mastication and deglutition
  132. What is the function of the tonsils?
    Protect the body from the invasion of microbes and produce lymphocytes
  133. How many teeth does an adult have?
    32 permanent teeth
  134. What is the part of the tooth above the gum line?
  135. What is the part of the tooth in the bony tooth socket?
  136. What is the protective layer of the crown?
  137. What is the main substance of the tooth?
  138. What is the dentin composed of?
    Bony tissue (yellow)
  139. What is the soft delicate tissue containing within a tooth?
  140. What covers, protects and supports dentin in the root?
  141. What surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket?
    Periodontal membrane
  142. Central incisor �
    2 front teeth in dental arch
  143. Lateral incisor �
    2 teeth next to front teeth
  144. Canine �
    Pointed, doglike teeth next to the incisors (cuspids or eyeteeth)
  145. First premolar -
    4th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
  146. Second premolar -
    5th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
  147. First molar �
    6th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
  148. Second molar -
    7th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
  149. Third molar -
    8th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
  150. Labial surface �
    nearest lips - incisors and canine teeth
  151. Buccal surface �
    adjacent to cheeks � premolars and molars
  152. Facial surface �
    Front surface of teeth
  153. Lingual surface �
    Back surface of teeth
  154. Mesial surface �
    Lies nearer to median line
  155. Distal surface �
    Lies further from median line
  156. Occlusal surface �
    comes in contact with a corresponding tooth in the opposite arch (molars and premolars only)
  157. Incisal edge �
    Sharp end of incisors and canines
  158. What are the 3 types of salivary glands?
    parotid, submandibular, sublingual
  159. What is the function of the epiglottis?
    Covers the trachea so food cannot enter
  160. What is the function of the esophagus?
  161. What is the function of the the lower esophageal sphincter?
    Relaxes and contracts to move food from esophagus to stomach; prevent regurgitation
  162. What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
    allows food to leave the stomach when it is ready
  163. What is the function of the rugae?
    Produce pepsin and hydrochloric acid
  164. Function of the small intestine
    digestion and absorption
  165. Function of villi
    absorb digested nutrients into bloodstream and lymph vessels
  166. Function of large intestine
    absorption of water and elimination of solid feces
  167. What are the 3 parts of the large intestine?
    cecum, colon, rectum
  168. What are the 4 segments of the colon?
    ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
  169. What are the 6 functions of the liver?
    1. maintains normal blood glucose levels, 2. stores, iron, and vitamines, 3. maufactures blood proteins, 4. removes toxins from the blood, 5. releases bilirubin, 6. produces bile
  170. How does the liver maintain normal blood glucose levels?
    removes excess glucose from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen in liver cells, converts glycogen into glucose when blood sugar is low (glucogenylisis), converts proteins and fats to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
  171. Pathway of bilirubin
    1. hemolysis and hemoglobin breakdown in spleen, 2. travels to liver, 3. made water-soluble in liver (conjugated bilirubin), 4. added to bile and enters duodenum, 5. bilirubin and bile are degraded in intestines and exit body in feces
  172. How does bile get from the liver to the gallbladder?
    travels through hepatic duct to cystic duct to gallbladder
  173. How do nutrients get to liver?
    portal vein carries digested food absorbed by the capillaries of the small intestine
  174. How does bile get to the intestines?
    contraction of gallbladder after a meal forces bile out of cystic duct and into the common bile duct into duodenum
  175. How do pancreatic juices get into intestines?
    pancreatic duct to duodenum
  176. What enzymes are in pancreatic juices?
    amylase, lipase, protease
  177. -chezia
  178. -tresia
  179. Celi/o
  180. Cheil/o
  181. Choledoch/o
    Common bile duct
  182. Sialaden/o
    Salivary gland
  183. Lith/o
  184. Sial/o
  185. BM
    bowel movement
  186. PTHC
    percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography - contrast medium injected using a needle placed through abdominal wall into the liver
  187. LAC
    Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy
  188. BRBPR
    Bright red blood per rectum - hematochezia
  189. T tube
    Tube placed in the bile duct for drainage into a small pouch
  190. EGD
  191. TPN
    Total parenteral nutrition - sugar, proteins, electrolytes, and vitamins
  192. ERCP
    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography - contrast medium is administered through oral catheter and passes through esoophagus, stomach, duodenum, and into bile ducts
  193. PUD
    Peptic ulcer disease
  194. EUS
    Endoscopic ultrasonography
  195. PEG tube
    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube - feeding tube
  196. FOBT
    Fecal occult blood test
  197. PEJ tube
    Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube - feeding tube
  198. What causes ascites?
    neoplasm inflammastory disorder, venous hypertension from liver disease, or heart failure
  199. What causes borygmus?
    Hyperactive intestinal peristalsis - gastroenteritis, diarrhea
  200. What causes melena?
    bleeding in upeer GI tract
  201. Canker sores are a symptom of what disease?
    aphthous stomatitis
  202. Fever blisters and cold stores are characteristics of what disease?
    Herpetic stomatitis
  203. What causes oral leukoplakia?
    chronic tobacco use
  204. What causes periodontal disease?
    Accumulation of dental plaque and dental calculus or tartar