Failure of LES to relax; dilation of esophagus above the narrowing and loss of peristalsis occur.
Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice
Enzyme that digests starch
Increased pressure in veins near liver
What causes gastric cancer?
chronic gastritis associated with baterial infection
What causes PUD?
Helicobacter pylori mixed with hyperacidity and gastric juices
What causes hemorrhoids?
pregnancy and chronic constipation
Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
Lower portion of stomach; muscular grinding chamber that breaks up food and feeds it gradually to the duodenum
Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores
Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen
Absence of a normal opening
Study of the esophagus
3 ways a patient can become jaundiced
1. any liver disease so that bilirubin is not processed into bile and cannot be excreted in feces, 2. obstruction of bile flow so that bile and bilirubin are not excreted and accumultate in the bloodstream, 3. excessive hemolysis leading to overproduction of bilirubin and high levels in the bloodstream
What enzymes to LFTs test for?
ALT, AST, alk phos (and bilirubin)
autoimmune disorder in which villi in the lining of the small intestine are damaged resulting from dietary glutens
Backflow of solids and fluid from the stomach to the mouth against its normal direction of movement
Endoscopic examination of stomach and intestines
New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; anastomosis
Removal of gums tissue
Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar
Breakdown of sugar to release energy in body cells
Passage of bright red blood from the rectum
Suture a hernia
Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus.
Strong acid present in a dilute form in the stomach
Pertaining to below the tongue
Jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
Rings of muscle between the ileum and cecum
Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines
Inflammatory bowel disease
Severe inflammation of the small and large intestine; Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating associated with stress and tension
Pertaining to the lips, tongue, and throat
Formation of stones
Liver function tests
Tests for presence of enzymes and bilirubin in blood or serum
lower esophageal sphincter
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach
Lower gastrointestinal series
X-ray imaging of the small and large intestines after injecting barium into the rectum; barium enema
Widening or dilation of lymph vessels
Part of mesentery attached to colon
Suture of the roof of the mouth and throat*
Acute, transient loss of peristalsis
Pertaining to a route other than through the GI tract
Salivary gland within the cheek, anterior to the ear
Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG tube or G tube)
Tube inserted through the abdomen into the stomach to deliver food and liquids when swallowing is impossible
Specialist in the treating the gums
Periodontal disease (gingivitis)
Inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone
Membrane that surrounds the tooth in the tooth socket
Inflammation of the peritoneum
After a meal
Endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon, anus, and rectum
Forward protrusion of the eyeballs
Enzymes that digests proteins
Ring of muscle surrounding the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter
Malignant tumor of the rectum*
Hernia of the rectum
Final section of the colon
Folds or creases in the mucus membrane of the stomach or hard palate of the mouth
Removal of salivary glands
Inflammation of a salivary gland
Salivary gland stone
Distal, lower end of the colon
Downward bend of the colon on the left side of the body toward the descending colon
Test for microorganisms in feces
Test for detection of occult blood in feces
Inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; inflammatory bowel disease
Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth
Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids
Twisting of the intestine upon itself
What is the function of the uvula?
aids in production of sounds/speech
What is the function of the tongue?
Moves food around during mastication and deglutition
What is the function of the tonsils?
Protect the body from the invasion of microbes and produce lymphocytes
How many teeth does an adult have?
32 permanent teeth
What is the part of the tooth above the gum line?
What is the part of the tooth in the bony tooth socket?
What is the protective layer of the crown?
What is the main substance of the tooth?
What is the dentin composed of?
Bony tissue (yellow)
What is the soft delicate tissue containing within a tooth?
What covers, protects and supports dentin in the root?
What surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket?
Central incisor �
2 front teeth in dental arch
Lateral incisor �
2 teeth next to front teeth
Pointed, doglike teeth next to the incisors (cuspids or eyeteeth)
First premolar -
4th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
Second premolar -
5th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
First molar �
6th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
Second molar -
7th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
Third molar -
8th tooth from middle on either side of dental arch
Labial surface �
nearest lips - incisors and canine teeth
Buccal surface �
adjacent to cheeks � premolars and molars
Facial surface �
Front surface of teeth
Lingual surface �
Back surface of teeth
Mesial surface �
Lies nearer to median line
Distal surface �
Lies further from median line
Occlusal surface �
comes in contact with a corresponding tooth in the opposite arch (molars and premolars only)
Incisal edge �
Sharp end of incisors and canines
What are the 3 types of salivary glands?
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Covers the trachea so food cannot enter
What is the function of the esophagus?
What is the function of the the lower esophageal sphincter?
Relaxes and contracts to move food from esophagus to stomach; prevent regurgitation
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
allows food to leave the stomach when it is ready
What is the function of the rugae?
Produce pepsin and hydrochloric acid
Function of the small intestine
digestion and absorption
Function of villi
absorb digested nutrients into bloodstream and lymph vessels
Function of large intestine
absorption of water and elimination of solid feces
What are the 3 parts of the large intestine?
cecum, colon, rectum
What are the 4 segments of the colon?
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
What are the 6 functions of the liver?
1. maintains normal blood glucose levels, 2. stores, iron, and vitamines, 3. maufactures blood proteins, 4. removes toxins from the blood, 5. releases bilirubin, 6. produces bile
How does the liver maintain normal blood glucose levels?
removes excess glucose from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen in liver cells, converts glycogen into glucose when blood sugar is low (glucogenylisis), converts proteins and fats to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
Pathway of bilirubin
1. hemolysis and hemoglobin breakdown in spleen, 2. travels to liver, 3. made water-soluble in liver (conjugated bilirubin), 4. added to bile and enters duodenum, 5. bilirubin and bile are degraded in intestines and exit body in feces
How does bile get from the liver to the gallbladder?
travels through hepatic duct to cystic duct to gallbladder
How do nutrients get to liver?
portal vein carries digested food absorbed by the capillaries of the small intestine
How does bile get to the intestines?
contraction of gallbladder after a meal forces bile out of cystic duct and into the common bile duct into duodenum
How do pancreatic juices get into intestines?
pancreatic duct to duodenum
What enzymes are in pancreatic juices?
amylase, lipase, protease
Common bile duct
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography - contrast medium injected using a needle placed through abdominal wall into the liver
Bright red blood per rectum - hematochezia
Tube placed in the bile duct for drainage into a small pouch
Total parenteral nutrition - sugar, proteins, electrolytes, and vitamins
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography - contrast medium is administered through oral catheter and passes through esoophagus, stomach, duodenum, and into bile ducts