Endocrine.txt

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Endocrine.txt
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Endocrine
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Chapter 18
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  1. Addison disease
    Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol
  2. Symptom of Addison disease
    Bronze skin color
  3. Cause of Addison disease
    Autoimmune adrenalitis
  4. Treatment of Addison disease
    Daily cortisone administration and intake of salts or administration of a synthetic form of aldosterone
  5. Adrenal virilism
    Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens
  6. Symptoms of adrenal virilism
    amenorrhea, hirrsutism, and deepening of the voice
  7. Cause and treatment for adrenal virilism
    adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal adenomas/carcinomas, drugs to suppress androgen production and adrenalectomy
  8. Adrenalectomy
    Removal of the adrenal gland
  9. Adrenaline
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine
  10. Aldosterone
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance
  11. Basal Insulin
    Delivered by an insulin pump continuously over 24 hours and mimics the normal secretion by the pancreas
  12. Bolus insulin
    Delivered by an insulin pump at mealtimes to cover a specific amount of sugar or starch ingested
  13. Calcitonin
    Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood
  14. Catecholamines
    Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; such as epinephrine
  15. Corticosteroids
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; such cortisol and aldosterone
  16. Cortisol
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells; raise blood sugar
  17. Cretinism
    Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth
  18. Cushing syndrome
    Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, and excess fat deposition in the body
  19. Symptoms of cushing syndrome
    Fullness of face, obesity, excessive fat in thoracic region of the back, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, and hypokalemia
  20. Causes of cushing syndrome
    Benign tumor of adrenal cortex, excess ACTH secretion, cortisone-like drugs
  21. Electrolyte
    Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge
  22. Estradiol
    Estrogen secreted by ovaries
  23. Estrogenic
    Similar to estrogen
  24. Hyperparathyroidism
    exxcessive production of parathormone leading to hypercalcemia
  25. Cause and treatment of hyperparathyroidism
    parathyroid hyperplasia or parathyroid tumor, resection of overactive tissue, bisphosphonates to decrease bone turnover and decrease hypercalcemia
  26. Hypoparathyroidism
    Deficient production of parathyroid hormone leading to hypocalcemia and tetany
  27. Treatment for hypoparathyroidism
    administration of calcium and large quantities of vitamin D to control calcium levels in blood
  28. Gastroparesis
    Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus
  29. Glucose tolerance test
    Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose; oral test
  30. Glycosylated hemoglobin test
    Measures long-term glucose control
  31. Gonadotropin
    Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes
  32. Graves disease
    Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis
  33. Symptoms of Graves disease
    High heart rate, high body temperature, hyperactivity, weight loss, diarrhea, exophthalamos
  34. Treatment for graves disease
    antithyroid drugs to reduce the amount of thyroid hormone produced by the gland and administration of radioactive iodine which destroys overactive glandular tissue
  35. Hashimoto disease
    An autoimmune thyroiditis in which antibodies trigger lymphocytes to destroy follicular cells in the thyroid gland leading to hypothyroidism
  36. Symptoms of hypothyroidism
    lower metabolism - fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain and fluid retention, slow heart rate, low body temperature and constipation
  37. Cause of hypothyroidism
    thyroidectomy, thyroiditis, endemic goiter, destruction of gland by irradiation
  38. Hirsutism
    Excessive hair growth
  39. Hypogonadism
    Deficient functioning of the gonads
  40. Hypophysectomy
    Removal of the pituitary gland
  41. Hypophysis
    Pituitary gland
  42. Hypopituitarism
    Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland
  43. Intermediate-acting insulin
    Peaks at 4-12 hours and lasts 14-24 hours
  44. Isthmus
    Narrow strip of glandular tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland on the ventral surface of the trachea
  45. Long-acting insulin
    Peaks at 1-2 hours and lasts up to 24 hours
  46. Luteinizing hormone
    Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and stimulates the ovaries to release eggs and produce hormones
  47. Melatonin
    Secreted by the pineal gland and functions to support the body's "biological clock" and is thought to induce sleep
  48. Metabolic syndrome
    Condition closely associated with insulin resistance that may be present 5-10 years before type 2 diabetes is diagnosed
  49. Mineralocorticoid
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts and water balance in the body; such as aldosterone
  50. Myxedema
    Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults
  51. What causes myxedmea?
    Atrophy of the thyroid gland with no hormone produced
  52. Symptoms of myxedema
    Dry, puffy skin due to mucus-like material under the skin and atherosclerosis
  53. Neurohypophysis
    Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin
  54. Oxytocin
    Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth
  55. Parathormone
    Secreted by the parathyroid glands ; regulates calcium in the blood
  56. Pheochromocytoma
    Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; stain a dark or dusky color; excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
  57. Treatment for pheochromocytoma
    surgery to remove tumor and antihypertensive drugs
  58. Cause of DM type 1
    autoantibodies against normal pancreatic islet cells cause destruction of the beta islet cells producing complete deficiency of insulin in the body
  59. Difference between achondroplastic dwards and hypopituitary dwarfs
    acondroplasia - genetic defect in cartilage formation limiting the growth of bones, hypopituitary - lack of GH
  60. Cause of SIADH
    tumor, drug reactions or head injury causes excessive antidiuretic hormone secretion
  61. Cause of DI
    Kidney tubules fail to hold back needed water and salts due to lack of ADH
  62. What does FPG of 99mg/dL mean?
    Normal blood glucose
  63. What does FPG of 100-125mg/dL mean?
    pre-diabetes
  64. What does FPG of 126mg/dl or higher mean?
    diabetes
  65. Pineal gland
    Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin
  66. Progesterone
    Hormone secreted by the ovaries that prepares the uterus for pregnancy
  67. Proptosis
    Protrusion of the eyeball
  68. Radioactive iodine uptake
    Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function
  69. Rapid-acting insulin
    Peaks at 30-60 minutes and lasts 3-5 hours
  70. Receptor
    Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue
  71. Short-acting insulin
    Peaks at 1.5-2 hours and lasts 6-8 hours
  72. Steroid
    Complex substance related to fat; derived from cholesterol
  73. Sympathomimetic
    Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
  74. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
    Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone leading to water retention
  75. Target tissue
    Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones
  76. Tetraiodothyronine
    Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine, T4
  77. Thymosin
    Hormone important in the development of immune responses in newborns
  78. Thyroid function tests
    Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream
  79. Thyrotoxicosis
    Hyperthyroidism
  80. Thyrotropin
    Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones; Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  81. Thyroxine
    Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase body metabolism, T4
  82. Triiodothyronine
    Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland and stimulates body metabolism; T3
  83. Vasopressin
    Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  84. Gland and function of erythropoietin?
    kidneys, stimulate erythrocyte production
  85. Gland and function of Human chorionic gonadotropin?
    placenta, sustains pregnancy
  86. Gland and function of vitamin D
    skin, calcium absorption
  87. Gland and function of gastrin
    GI tract, stimulates gastric secretion
  88. Gland and function of cholecystokinin
    gallbladder, contracts gallbladder
  89. Gland and function of prostaglandin
    semen and cells throughout the body, stimulates contractions of the uterus, regulates body temerature, platelet aggregation, and acid secretion in the stomach, have the ability to lower blood pressure
  90. Name the thyroid hormones
    thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine) and triiodothyronine
  91. How do thyroid hormones aid in metabolism?
    aid cells in their uptake of oxygen
  92. Gland and function of calcitonin
    thyroid gland, stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones (helps osteoporosis)
  93. Gland and function of PTH
    parathyroid gland, mobilizes calcium from bones into the bloodstream
  94. Another name for PTH
    Parathormone
  95. How does calcium homeostasis work?
    low blood calcium causes release of PTH and calcium enters blood, high blood calcium causes secretion of calcitonin and calcium enters bones
  96. What type of hormones are produced by adrenal cortex?
    corticosteroids
  97. What type of hormones are produced by adrenal medulla?
    catecholamines
  98. What types of corticosteroids are produced by the adrenal cortex?
    glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, sex hormones
  99. What hormones are produced by adrenal cortex?
    cortisol, aldosterone, androgens
  100. Gland and function ofcortisol
    Adrenal cortex, regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism (raises glucose in response to stress)
  101. Gland and function of aldosterone
    Adrenal cortex, acts on kidneys to reabsorb sodium and water and to excrete potassium (regulation of blood volume and pressure and electrolyte concentration)
  102. Gland and function of androgens
    Adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries, secondary sex characteristics
  103. Hormones secreted from the adrenal medulla
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  104. Gland and function of epinephrine
    Adrenal medulla, Increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose from glycogen
  105. Gland and function of norepinephrine
    Adrenal medulla, Constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure
  106. Functions of pancreas
    98% secrete digestive enzymes, 2% secrete insulin and glucagon
  107. Which glands secrete insulin?
    beta cells of pancreas
  108. Which glands secrete glucagon?
    alpha cells of pancreas
  109. Another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    adenohypophysis
  110. Another name for the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    neurohypophysis
  111. Function of the hypothalamus
    Send releasing and inhibiting factors via capillaries to the anterior pituitary gland that stimulate or inhibit secretion of hormones from anterior pituitary, produces and secretes hormones directly to the posterior pituitary gland where hormones are stored and released
  112. Hormones produced by the adenohypophysis
    GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL
  113. Another name for GH
    Somatotropin
  114. Another name for TSH
    thyrotropin
  115. Gland and function of GH
    Adenohypophysis, promotes protein synthesis that results in bone and muscle growth, stimulates liver to make insulin-like growth factor to stimulate bone growth, and increases blood glucose levels
  116. Gland and function of TSH
    Adenohypophysis, stimulates growth of thyroid gland and secretion of T4 and T3
  117. Gland and function of ACTH
    Adenohypophysis, stimulates growth of adrenal cortex and secretion of steroid hormones by adrenal cortex
  118. Another name for ACTH
    adrenocorticotropin
  119. Gland and function of FSH
    Adenohypophysis, hormone secretion and egg and sperm production
  120. Gland and function of LH
    Adenohypophysis, stimulates ovulation and production of testosterone
  121. Gland and function of PRL
    Adenohypophysis, Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and milk production after birth
  122. Gland and function of ADH
    neurohypophysis, stimulates reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, increases blood pressure by constricting arterioles
  123. Gland and function of OT
    neurohypophysis, stimulates uterus to contract during childbirth, maintains labor during child birth, and secreted during suckling and causes the producion of milk from the mammary glands
  124. Another name for ADH
    vasopressin
  125. Hormones secreted by neurohypophysis
    ADH and OT
  126. Hormones from ovaries
    Estrogens and progesterone
  127. Gland and function of estrogens
    ovaries, stimulate development of ova and development of female seconday sex characteristics
  128. Gland and function of progesterone
    ovaries, preparation and maintenace of the uterus in pregnancy
  129. Types of estrogens
    estradiol and estrone
  130. Gland and function of melatonin
    pineal gland, supports biological clock, induces sleep and affects mood
  131. What causes an increase or decrease in melatonin
    deprivation of light, decreases with sunlight exposure
  132. Gland and function of thymosin
    thymus gand, affects immune response
  133. Toc/o
    Childbirth
  134. Cortic/o
    Cortex, outer region
  135. Ster/o
    Solid structure
  136. Phys/o
    Growing
  137. -agon
    Assemble, gather together
  138. -in, -ine
    A substance
  139. -tropin
    Stimulating the function of
  140. A1C
    Blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin to access glucose control
  141. BGM
    Blood glucose monitoring
  142. BMR
    Basal metabolic rate - an indicator of thyroid function but not in current use
  143. HbA1C
    Test for presence of glucose attached to hemoglobin; a high level indicates poor glucose control in diabetic patients
  144. CGMS
    Continuous glucose monitoring system - senses and records blood glucose levels continuously
  145. ICSH
    Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
  146. FBG
    Fasting blood glucose
  147. FBS
    Fasting blood sugar
  148. IDDM
    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - type 1 diabetes
  149. IGF
    Insulin-like growth factor - somatomedin
  150. MEN
    Multiple endocrine dysplasia - hereditary hormonal disorder marked by adenomas and carcinomas
  151. LADA
    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults - type 1.5 diabetes diagnosed in adults older than 30 years of age
  152. TFT
    Thyroid function test
  153. MDI
    Multiple daily injection - basal/bolus; diabetes management regimen
  154. NIDDM
    Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - type 2 diabetes
  155. 17-OH
    17-hydroxycorticosteroids
  156. OT
    Oxytocin
  157. PRL
    Prolactin
  158. SIADH
    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)
  159. STH
    Somatotropin - GH
  160. What causes goiter?
    low iodine levels lead to low T3 and T4, feedbacks to hypothalamus and adenohypophysis, stimulates hypothalamuse and adenohypophysis to secrete TSH, TSH promotes the thyroif gland to secrete T3 and T4 but without iodine the size of the gland increases
  161. Treatments for goiter
    Endemic - increase iodine in diet, nodular - thyroid-blocking drugs or radioactive iodine to suppress thyroid function

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