PH Final

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Anonymous
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1651
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PH Final
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2009-11-25 09:09:12
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Public Health
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PH Final
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  1. ____ are portfolios of observations and data summarizing health priorities needs and resources and are key to establishing to establishing public health budgets
    Community Health Assessments (CHA)
  2. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a division of the ____ and conducts ______
    CDC; period surveys of representative samples of the population
  3. National Health Interview Survey is conducted by DHHS _____ on _______ households
    Every other year; 50,000
  4. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is conducted ______ on ______. Involves ____
    Every year; 5,000 individuals; full medical work up
  5. in 2005-2006, ___% of American children's parents talked to a healthcare provider about a child's emotional or behavioral problems; __% were prescribed meds for mood disorders; __% for ADHD
    15; 5; 89
  6. Health Informatics info come from (5)
    Clinical studies, standard databases, census (very detailed questions), DHHS, coroner reports.
  7. T/F A comprehensive health information database exists
  8. T/F Medical records are available to foreign hospitals to serve travelers
    False- administrative costs are accrued when these records are gathered manually
  9. Hospital Records contain ____(3)
    Medical, family, diagnostic history
  10. Almost all psychopharm medications prescribed to 4-17 yr olds is for ____ (more ___ than ____0
    ADHD, males than females, older children than younger
  11. For the treatment of ADHD, more children are treated with ___ than ____ and are most commonly treated in _____
    meds than others; private practice or clinic, schools, general medical practice
  12. Current treatment methods of ADHD may indicate these 3 anthropological conclusions (so what?)
    Need for greater access to wider variety of mental health services, more research on non- medical/ combo treatments, community level assessments of quality and scope of school based/ other mental services (follow up studies needed for all)
  13. Notification systems: WHO requires international reporting of ___ (3)
    Yellow fever, cholera, plague
  14. Notification Systems: Reporting is imperfect because there is no universal health care access or use, no universal reporting system, takes time
  15. Notification Systems: CDC requires reporting of disease by ____ and _____ for more urgent conditions
    mail/ internet; phone
  16. Notification Systems: Chain of disease reporting (4)
    Health care professional, local/ state public health agency, federal agency, news media
  17. Notification Systems: : Task of Health care professional
    (diagnosis),
  18. Notification Systems: : Task of local/ state public health care agency
    investigates source/ spread, communicates with CDC
  19. Notification Systems: : Task of federal agency
    disease control and public relations strategies, scientific research
  20. Notification Systems: : Task of news media
    Public notification
  21. Commodity fetishism: Definition and relation to tomato scare
    • Marx- disconnect final product from its sources
    • Even though only canned tomatoes were affected, sales of all mexican produce went down, subtle xenophobia in news (masks accurate assessment of immigration policy and public health),
    • emphasizes need for political sensitivity when issuing press releases
  22. T/F There is no reason for the lax monitoring of produce importation that exist today
    False- economic incentives
  23. Older age groups have higher rates of death by most causes except _____ (3)
    injuries, suicide, homicide, HIV infection
  24. The most common cause of death for children under 19 was _____ is ______
    motor vehicle accidents (occupant or pedestrian); falls
  25. 4 important factors of interpreting public health info
    Single study or meta- analysis, size of study, animal or human study, study of biological markers or actual disease
  26. The DARC gene has been associated with ___ (2)
    Decreased susceptibility to malaria, increased to HIV
  27. ___% of healthy people 2010 goals were accomplished, __% are moving in the right direction, __% moving in wrong direction
    15; 44; 15
  28. Poor perception of health status is inversely related to ____
    Household income
  29. T/F Income inequalities have increased since 1980
    True
  30. Morbidity/ Mortality from chronic disease is ____ higher in low- income citizens compared to high- income citizens
    300%
  31. Men are twice as likely to die from _____ and 4 times more likely to die from _____
    unintentional injuries, fun accidents
  32. Women have ___ as much depression as men
    2x
  33. People lacking higher education are ___ more likely to die from premature death than are people with some higher education; infant mortality rate is reduced by ___ if you graduate from college
    200%
  34. These factors are affected by race, income, education, sex (7)
    morbidity/ mortality from chronic disease, life expectancy, death from unintentional injuries, gun accidents, premature death, depression, infant mortality
  35. Total infant mortality is ___ but African American infant mortality is _____
    decreasing, increasing (2x rate for white Americans)
  36. T/F African Americans are both more likely to get chronic diseases and to die from them
    True- heart disease, prostate cancer, HIV/AIDS
  37. ____ have highest diabetes, depression, suicide rate in world
    African- Americans
  38. __% of Americans live in rural areas (fewer than 2,500 residents) where injury related mortality is __% higher
    25; 40- less likely to have healthcare visits, use seatbelts, be insured or exercise regularly
  39. Gay men have significantly higher rates of ___ (4)
    STDs, substance abuse, major depression, suicide (2-3 times rate of suicide)
  40. Military personnel have higher rates of (3)
    substance abuse , domestic abuse, suicide (veterans are 8x more likely to commit suicide)
  41. T/F more women than men are discharged from the hospital following treatment for cardiovascular disease
  42. ____ make routine doctors visits more regularly, varies ____ among "8 America" classifications
    Females, surprisingly little
  43. According to 8 Americas study ____ and ____ seem have worse health conditions than comparable demos
    males, poor Southern blacks
  44. ___ year difference in life expectancy between America 1 and 8 (Asians, High- Risk urban blacks)
    21
  45. Since 1980, life expectancy gap between sexes has _____ by ____%
    increased, 0.5%
  46. Top 3 contributers to disease burden
    Smoking, alcohol use, overweight and obesity (these affect males more than women)
  47. 8 most cost- effective PH interventions
    tobacco cessation counseling in young adults, anti-tobacco messaging for adolescents, screening elderly for vision impairments, counseling adolescents on alcohol abuse, screening adults for problem drinking, screening adults for colorectal cancer, screening young women for HPV (or providing vaccine), vaccinating older adults against pneumonia.
  48. Age adjusted rates of death due to HIV have _____ between ___ and _____
    declined; 1987-2002
  49. In 1985, ____ had highest death/ case rates due to HIV. Now ____ have highest rates. (____ and ___ have almost no deaths due to HIV)
    White; Black (rates in blacks have gone up while rates in whites have gone down); Asian/ Pacific Islanders, American Indian/ Alaska Native
  50. ___% of AIDS cases are among black people though they make up __% of the population. (for whites __% of cases, __% of population)
    50, 13; 30; 68
  51. Top 3 methods of AIDS transmission for males
    Male-to- male sexual contact (58%), injection drug use, high- risk hetero sex
  52. Top 3 methods of AIDS transmission for females
    High- risk hetero sex (71%), injection drug use, other (other is only 2%)
  53. Percentage of HIV deaths that are of females has ____ by _____ from ___ to _____
    increased, 200%, 1987-2003
  54. Most females who die from AIDS from hetero contact are ____
    Black (probably most in general given prevalence of this mode of transmission)
  55. The _____ region of the U.S. has the highest rates of adults living with AIDS while the ____ region has the lowest.
    South; Midwest
  56. Proportional distribution of AIDS cases in the South have ____ between 1987 and 2003 while rates in the West, Northeast have ______. Cases in the Midwest have more or less stayed the same for that time period.
    Increased; decreased
  57. Most adolescents with AIDS are ____. The proportion of this group has ____ since 1981
    Black, Increased from 50-64% (only 15% of population)
  58. African American household income is ___% of white's, ___% of blacks live in poverty while ___% of whites do
    62; 26, 9
  59. __ of Extremely poor Americans are ____ with ____
    women with no high school diploma
  60. Trio of social suffering
    Gender, Poverty, Biology
  61. STDS acquisition is ____ more likely in male to female vaginal intercourse
    2-5
  62. STD coinfection increases risk of HIV contraction by ___ times
    50x
  63. NIMH Prevention trial (2)
    Best study regarding STD programs in U.S., study of 37 STD clinics with "high- risk" African- American and Hispanic men and women
  64. Procedures of NIMH Prevention Trial (3)
    study of 37 STD clinics with "high- risk" African- American and Hispanic men and women; participants shows 1 hr video or seven weekly 90 minute risk reduction training sessions; focused on behavioral interventin and risk reduction through education, self- esteem building and situational negotiation skills
  65. Results of NIMH Study
    No change in unprotected sex acts/ month (reduction on low- end, slight increase on high- end of intervention group), increased condom use, slightly lower reduction in gonorrhea rates
  66. ____ are least likely to be insured, ____ most likely
    Mexicans, those slightly above poverty line; whites, 200% or more of poverty line
  67. T/F Uninsured are more likely to have undiagnosed high cholesterol/ blood pressure
  68. Modes of Transportation
  69. Modes of transmission (4)
    Direct (airborne), Indirect (bloodborne, waterborne, airborne), transcutaneous, vertical (mother to child)
  70. Transmission cycle (4)
    Agent--> vector--> host--> environment
  71. Three possible steps from vector to human host
    Vector--> intermediary host--> human host
  72. Insect transmission accounts for___ of all vector- borne disease transmission.
    85%
  73. Worldwide resurgence of vector borne diseases since ___ because of ___(2)
    1970's; major environmental changes, low surveillance in tropics and subtropics
  74. Factors influencing spread of vector- borne diseases (4)
    Size of host population, density of agents in host population, environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity, levels of human resistance
  75. Immunity vs. Resistance
    Immunity: Resistance to infection from presence of antibodies or cells that act on a specific microorganism; Resistance- resistance to transmission or development of disease
  76. Factors influencing resistance (8)
    Age, sex, nutrition, pregnancy, trauma, fatigue, mental health, medications
  77. Long- Term Impacts of Communicable Disease (5)
    Living with chronic infectious disease (herpes), weakened immune system, secondary conditions, antibiotics and disease mutation; rheumatic fever
  78. Measuring Disease (4)
    Disease burden (or Burden of Disease), mortality and morbidity, DALYs and QALYs, psychiatric conditions
  79. T/F Globally, communicable disease is more common than non- communicable
    False- Infectious disease causes fewer deaths than heart disease, more than any other singular non- communicable disease
  80. Top 3 Causes of Global Burden of Disease as measured by DALYs
    Perinatal conditions, lower respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease (onset at young age, not immediately fatal)
  81. Regions with highest proportion of infectious disease DALYs
    Africa (48%), Southeast Asia (28%)
  82. In Africa, ___% of deaths are attributable to infectious disease, in Europe __%
    62%, 5%
  83. Most African deaths due to disease are from (3)
    HIV/ AIDS, Malaria, Measles- most deadly diseases vary greatly by region
  84. Types of direct transmission
    Physical contact (leprosy, scabies, anthrax), Sexual contact (STIs), Airborne (measles, strep, Legionnaire's disease, flu)
  85. Anthrax was discovered by ____ in ____, vaccine was developed by _____ in ______
    Robert Koch, 19877; Louis Pasteur, 1881 (not essential part of vaccination programs)
  86. Anthrax: Vaccine
    living, non- virulent strain with 6 doses in infancy and annual booster shots
  87. Anthrax (bacillus anthracis): Treat to end biological weapons development in ___, _____ 1 million residents of major ____ city exposed via ______
    1972; Russian, accidental release from military complex (20 resulting deaths)
  88. Anthrax (bacillus anthracis): Incubation
    0-5 days
  89. Anthrax (bacillus anthracis): Symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis
    flu- like, severe diarrhea; symptoms and chest x- rays, respiratory failure
  90. Anthrax (bacillus anthracis): Systems affected, modes of transmission, mortality rate
    Lymph nodes and tissue; airborne, cutaneous, gastroenteric
  91. Anthrax (bacillus anthracis): Primary, Seconday Tertiary Prevention
    Primary:

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