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A land bridge across the Bering Straits between Siberia and Alaska. It was once an are where plants, animals, and humans could live
3000 BC - 1700 AD there were three distinct cultures of "____ _____" that succeeded each other and exerted a powerful influence over the interior of N. America. Named for the huge earthern mounds that they erected, these cultures arose near the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. These communities participated in a commerce that spanned most of the continent between the Appalachians and the Rockies, Great Lakes basin, and Gulf of Mexico.Cahokia was a huge settlement of the "____ ____" with 20,000 people at its peak. They created great mounds such as the The Great Serpent Mound.
The Chesapeake Region- there were confederacies amon native americans and Slash and Burn Agrigulture was practiced
Northern Woodlands & Atlantic Coast- hunters hunted wide hunting areas and there were seasonal gatherings among the tribes. Spear fishing was practiced on the coast
Central Atlantic Coast-Iriquois league of 5 nations confederacy were dominant of this region. moved to central NY area due to hatred of other Indian nations. controlled the trade area in this region.
Region Distinctions of Native Americans
Vikings under "_____ ___" were the first to reach N. America. They established a settlement call "Vinland." The Vikings journey remained unknown to the rest of Europe because every one stayed away from Vikins.
Most of the Native American cultures were matrilineal. Lineages are tracked through the mothers not fathers. They had a high divorce rate and Men and Women had equal political rights. Women were associated with the Earth! Earth gives birth like women do and women did the farming. Women have absolute control of the home & village
Men are associated with Sun. men did the hunting and went to war.
Native American Worldview and Gender Roles
Native Americans: -very extensive trade networks, for ex Obsidian to make tools and weapons, They were very good with agriculture, grew 2 crops a year w/out ruining soil, irrigation systems, Indians had far greater irrigation systems than Spanish. Fertilizers were more advanced. They used Crop Rotation very well and they also had Stone Tools.
Europeans: they had iron weapons/tools and diseases that nearly wiped out the Native Americans.
Technology comparisons between Native Americans and Europeans
This man was trying to find the Northwes Passage to China because Spain couldn't go through the defenses of Portugal. He landed in the carribean in 1492 and thought it southern Asia.
The Americas were named after him, he represented Spain and reached the Carribean and S. America
He visited China and was enslaved when he arrived there. He became a member of the court for the Mongols and was freed after 20yrs and rewarded for his services. He went back to Europe with riches and stories and every European nation was inpired by him
Diseases that ravaged the Native American tribes. These diseases were brought by the Europeans and the disease has never been in that land before so once it hit, it hit hard nearly wiping out all of the Native Americans. Smallpox had a 90-95% casualty rate among the Native Americans.
Virgin Soil Epidemic
They had four colonization systems.
Conquistadores - whose mission was to convert as many indians as possible and punish those who didn't convert. They killed many indians. For ex. the fall of the Aztecs.
Encomienda System: it was like a traditional feudal system.
Hacienda System: set up for ranching
Mission System: Was used to train souls and save them. They were ran by the priests (Church Driven)
Spanish Colonization Systems
New France - early exploration searched for NW passage, Jack Cartier is one of the first exxplorers to try to find NW passage from France. First settlement at Port Royal. They had a Jesuit Approach. They learned the native languages. They did not force indians to accept European customs. They lived in villages and learned Indian customs. They also applied European medicine to the natives once they got sick. They looked for similarites b/w indian beliefs and Christianity beliefs and linked them.Established "Praying Towsn"
French Colonization approaches and systems
New England: two major settlements initially, Plymouth(small) and Massachusetts Bay(very large). They were formed by Puritans and Seperatists escaping religious torment from England. They established theocratic govts.
English colonization approaches and systems
The attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, like religion. The Jesuits used this, the merging of two societies. This caused many hybrid religions like vudu.
Massachusetts Bay And Plymouth Colonies- founded by John Winthrop, there was a massive migration from England in 1630's, Massachusetts Bay triples every 2 yrs. It was a Church Run society, puritan ministers reinforce patrarchal social structure. There were no toleraion for dissent. There was trouble accepting assertive women, some were executed for their beliefs. The rate that MB was expandig brought tensions w/ Indians. There were also tensions between Puritans and Yankees. Puritans were small towners, yankees were bussiness men who ran things.
New England economic, social and political peculiarities
Dutch settled in this area first, it was very multicultural, and were not as anti foreing as the English.
New Netherlands(Amsterdam)/ New York: first settlements were Dutch who were involved with fur trade. they had alliance w/ Iriquios. There was a war b/w Netherlands and Britain in 1652 and they surrendered to British in 1664. They gave up New Netherlands and was named New York. The English Changed little except for higher taxes.
Pensylvannia: founded by William Penn, was named the "holy experiment" b/c it provided refugee for Quakers, Penn was also a Quaker. They were very tolerant of other religions. While Penn was alive the holy experiment succeeded.
Mid Atlantic Colonies economic, social and political peculiarities
Virginia: Jamestown 1607, was the first successful british colony. They used a new financial method: joint stock company. They had immediate problems. They were too close to ocean, salt water in fresh water, they were in a swamp which they got a lot of diseases. John Smith took charge and when he left everything got worse again. The powhatans attack and kill many villagers, remaining villagers barely survived winter w/out help from indians. Tobacco saves the colony.
Maryland: establish for safe heaven for Catholics. The catholics called the shots in MD even though Protestants were larger in number. This did not last and there was a civil war in MD. Protestants victorious.
Carolinas: set up to challenge Spanish power, manyu settlers came from carribbean and engaged in slavery, lumber & shipbuilding, Rice(1680s) they learned it from slaves.
Georgia: set up as a rehabilitation colony, no local assembly, alcohol & slavery banned. Crown wanted buffer b/w rich rice fields in Carolina and The Spanish in Florida. required military service for every male, Georgia military to protect Carolina from Spanish.
Chesapeake Bay economic, social and political peculiarities
Life expectancy was 40yrs until 1660s, there were more males, socioeconomic statisfaction- largering of groups in society, wealthier planters elites near coast and Poor planters & new arrivals in interior. royal governer william Berkely opposed real retaliation when Indians attack the front line. he had an indian trade agreement monopoly with them. Bacons rebellion.
Problems in Virginia
Calvert patronage maintained catholic poitical power, protestants of all classes chafed at the catholic control. July 1689, John Coode raised an army, defeated Calvert's focres. Oliver Cronwell was sympathetic to protestants, revoked charter.
Impact of Bacon & Coode - wealthy & mid-level planters began cooperatin & sharing power and privaleges. Insured there would be no more rebellions of the landed elite. This cause a major PROBLEM: gulf b/w wealthy & poor planters grew significantly
Problems in Maryland
coastal elites refused to give interior settlers political participation, two protest movements emerge called regulation. S. Carolina interior sufferering from hustlers, kidnappers, rappists, and murderers. N. Carolina exploited by govt corruption.
Regulators : S. Carolina regulators, vigilanters
N.C regulators seized county courts, went to war w/ Eastern militian and the governor, Battle of Alamance(1771) crushed regulators.
problems in Carolinas
Group of young girls were diagnosed with "Bewitchment", religious hysteria ensued by puritans. Royal governor William Phipps, who was not welcomed by puritans and loved by Yankees, when his daughter was accussed of witchcraft, he stepped in and dismissed Puritan Law & established English law. Women's social issues played a major role.
Salem Witch Trials
describes Pensylvannia which was founded by William Penn. it was a refuge for prosecuted Quakers. This was very successful as long as William Penn was alive.
The "Holy Experiment"
A term of abuse used by opponents to describe members of the Society of Friends, who believed that God, in the form of the Inner Light, was present in all humas. Friends were pacifists who rejected oaths, sacraments, and all set forms of religious worship.
he failed to sucessfully establish a settlement in 1587. He left to england and by the time he came back all of the villagers disappeared from the settlement. No one knew what happened to them.
Jamestown was filled with men who were not used to work back in England. So they tried to enslave Native Americans but failed and angered the Indians. The Indians attacked the settlement numerous times. When John Smith took charge, he changed everything. He made every one work in order to eat. He who does not work does not eat. established good relationship with indians. Once he left Jamestown tried to enslave indians again but were attacked and barely survived the winter w/out the help of the indians.
The social problems of jamestown
She helped John Smith and the people of Jamestown avoid war with Powhatans Indians
he starts growing a new tobacco product, creates the first tobacco plant in Virginia. He needs labor so Indentured servant systerm were created. He was the driving force behind tobacco in Virginia and tobacco was what saved Jamestown from destruction. He creates peace with Powhatans by marrying Pocahontas.
he led a group of trustees and obtained a 20yr charter from parliament in 1732, raised money from Anglican friends, and launched the colony of Georgia on land claimed by both Spain and britain. He started the colony of Gerogia.
Heavy labor was needed to grow this crop. The problems that plauged John Smith were still present as the 1620s approached. they refused to work so they were looking for a source of labor to grow this crop. Manual labor was viewsed as beneath their station so this is when the Virginia company responded by sponsoring indentured servants to immigrate.
He recently arrived from England and expected to be well received by Berkely but was turned away by him. Berkely exculded Bacon from the Indian Assault plans so this guy took up the cause of all the frontiersmen, his armies slaughtered hostile and friendly Indians. Berkely declared this guy a rebel and Civil War erupted. On sept 1676 he razed Jamestown. He died only one month later from dysentery.
Nathaniel Bacon and Bacon's Rebellion
He raised in army and defeated Calvert's forces in Maryland on July 1689.
S. Carolina _________ were seen as vigilantes. N. Carolina ________ seized the county courts and went to war with Eastern militia and the governor as well. They were defeated at the Battle of Alamance (1771)
he and and his group purchased land from New Hampshire (1760s), NY claimed their land so Allen led the Green Mountain boys in guerilla resistance, he also set up the court systems.
Ethan Allen and The Green Mountain Boys
there was a preference for buying indentured servants instead of slaves because of the cost and life expectancy. By the 1660s, these reasons were obsolete. England's economy had recovered so there was a decline in indentured servants. That is major reason why indentured servants were replaced by slaves. Also there has been rebellions by indentured servants so they couldn't be trusted and indentured servants still had rights, slaves didn't.
indentured servants vs slaves
Portugeuse & Spanish- carribean and S. America, needed slaves for sugar plantations, spanish slave imorts during the 1600s rose to 19,000 per year. They traded with western African coastal town
Dutch- took over the slave trade in the 1680s, but the english took over from the Dutch. slaves imported during the 1700s rose to 60,000 per year.
English-developed the "Triagle Trade", it was very profitable, huge fortunes were made. 1st point: Europe, 2nd point: Slave Coast, 3rd point: The Americas
slave trade- portugeuse, spanish, dutch, english
New England became important as part of the trade. They traded Rum, slaves were sold in Barbados and traded for sugar. Sugar traded to New England for rum.
English Triangle Trade
French Louisiana began importing slaves, they coppied VA's tobacoo system. Sudden influx of slaves challenged French control, France got out of the slave importing business in Louisisan. No plantation economy grew after this in Louisiana until the cotton in the late 1700s
Biggest Slave revolt of the colonia period. Angolan slave named Jemmy was the one who started the revolt. 20 slaves grouped together and overran a store and armed themselves. Recruited more slaves. White Carolinians caught up w/ them, they formed force and battle was exchanged. About 20 slaves and 10 whites died during battle. All the slaves wre slaughtered when they surrendered. RESULT: stricter slave laws
A system of protecting a country's economy, encouraged exports and discouraged imports. PROBLEM: English never viewed the colonies attaining any permanence(permitts). colonies are raw material production and sell them to the parent company, parents turn raw into finish products and sell them back to colonies
Domestic workers gave wealthier women more free time. poor women spent less time on domestic work than their rural counterparts. Women who had to suppor t themselves had oppertunities. Less than 10% of women in cities were employed.
Women in Seaports
European intellectual movement in the 1600s that emphasized human reason and natural law governing nature and society. Everyone is equal under the law. The printing press allowed the Enlightment movement to spread rapidly. It spawned amateur scientists such as Benjamin Franklin who worked with electricity, constructed telescopes. The movement aslo sought to find explanations for epidemics. Caused a boom in colonial higher education. It also applied ideas to religion knows as "Rational Christianity" that caused a major backlash from many misisters and caused a major religious revival.
deepend the influence of older forms of Protestan Christianity. First Revivals were among Presbytarians and congregationalists. Massive Revivals of George Whitefield, 1739. he embarked on a two year revival tour, he gave speeches that fiered up his audience, and ministers tried to copy his style. Quakers and Anglicans shunned the revival.
Aftermath: many miisters were criticezed for being cold, uninspiring, and even unconverted. This led to the rise of itinerant preachers(guest preachers) who are equipped with "fire" preaching. Increased tensions in the colonies as churches splintered. Spanish Jews were heavily prosecuted. Slaves were looking for new ways to resist. Created a Challenge for colonial unity.
The Great Awakening
The colonists were questioning themselves whether to be colonials or english? Wealthyu colonists enamored w/ the luxury & fashion of England. But they resisted impulse to mirror wealthy London Elites because England's nobility were purchasing luxury and leisure at the exreme misery of the people.
Formation of new "Colonial" identity
this war lasted from 1754-1763 and it was the most expensive war up to its history. After this war, England is really in debt and France will be bankrupt, this led to its downfall(French Revolution) and England survives by a string.
Seven Year's War
The prices of furs cut in half w/ the new English monopoly after French defeat in the Seven Years War. Delaware Indian Prophet Neolin encourages resistance, Pontiac starts uniting tribes to cooperate to fight the british. This creates a massive Indian unity. Pontiac succesfully attacked 8 English forts. Which led up to the Proclamation Line of 1763. The British promised not to cross east of the Apalachian mountains but they broke their promise two weeks after. The English tried to infect the Indians with Smallpox in infected blankets on purpose!!!