radiology.txt

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kait1217
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165102
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radiology.txt
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2012-08-05 23:16:56
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Radiology
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  1. Anteroposterior
    X-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector
  2. Cineradiography
    Use of motion picture techniques to record a series of x-ray images
  3. Contrast studies
    Material is injected into vessels and organs to obtain contrast with surrounding tissues when viewed on x-ray and other images
  4. Double-contrast study
    Uses a radiopaque and radiolucent contrast medium
  5. Eversion
    Turning outward
  6. Fluorescence
    Emission of glowing light that results from exposure to and absorption of radiation from x-rays
  7. Gadolinium
    Contrast agent used in performing some MRIs
  8. Gallium scan
    Radioisotope is injected intravenously and has an affinity for tumors and other lesions
  9. Gamma camera
    Machine to detect gamma rays given off by radiopharmaceuticals during scanning for diagnostic purposes
  10. Gamma rays
    High energy rays emitted by radioactive substances in tracer studies
  11. Hysterosalpingography
    X-ray record of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes is obtained after injection of contrast material through the vagina and into the endocervical canal
  12. Interventional radiology
    Therapeutic procedures performed by a radiologist
  13. Inversion
    Turned inward
  14. How does ultrasonography work?
    Transducer emits sound waves in short, repetitive phases that move through body tissues and detect interfaces between tissues of different densities; an echo reflection of the soundwaves is formed as the waves hit the various body tissues and bounce back to the transducer
  15. What helps conduction of sound waves?
    water
  16. How does MRI work?
    water molecules in tissues are lined up by placing the body in a strong magnetic field and relax when the magnetic field is shut down, rates of alignment and relaxation vary from one tissue to another and produce a sharply defined picture
  17. What contrast is sometimes used with MRI?
    gadolinium
  18. What does gadolinium do?
    enhances vessels and tissues, increases sensitivity for lesion detection, and helps differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues and structures
  19. What is MRI most useful for?
    Visualizing soft tissues with more water content, spinal cord and brain tumors, joints, tendons, and ligaments, liver masses and head and neck lesions
  20. What is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic imaging?
    Technetium-99m
  21. What does nuclear medicine focus on?
    uses of radioactive substances in diagnosis of disease
  22. Name in vitro tests
    Radioimmunosay, blood and urine analysis
  23. Name in vivo tests
    tracer studies
  24. Ionization
    Transformation of electrically neutral substances into electrically charged particles
  25. What studies use iodine compounds?
    angiography, cholangiography, DSA, hysterosalpingography, myelography, pyelography, and urography
  26. Name 7 tracer studies.
    Lung scan, bone scan, lymphoscintigraphy, PET scan, SPECT, technetium-99m sestamibi scan, thallium scan
  27. percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
    injection of contrast via a needle through the skin and into the liver
  28. Lateral decubitus
    Lying down on one's side with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned
  29. Lymphoscintigraphy
    Nuclear medicine imaging that produces pictures of the lymphatic system to identify a sentinel node
  30. Nuclear medicine
    Medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances in the diagnosis of disease
  31. Oblique
    Positioned at an angle
  32. Prone
    Lying on the belly
  33. Pyelogram
    X-ray record of the kidneys and urinary tract after contrast is injected
  34. Radiofrequency ablation
    Removal of tumors and tissues using radiation
  35. Radioimmunoassay
    Test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances in a patient's blood
  36. Radioisotope
    Radioactive form of an element; radionuclide
  37. Radionuclide
    Radioactive form of an element; gives off energy in the form of radiation; radioisotope
  38. Radiopharmaceutical
    Radioactive drug that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes
  39. Roentgenology
    Radiology
  40. Scan
    Image of an area, organ, or tissue of the body obtained from ultrasound, radioactive tracer studies, or computed tomography
  41. Single photon emission computed tomography
    Radioactive tracer is injected intravenously, and a computer reconstructs a 3D image based on a composite of many views
  42. Sonogram
    Image of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the body
  43. Supine
    Lying on one's back
  44. Tagging
    Attaching a radionuclide to a chemical and following its path in the body
  45. Technetium-99m
    A pure gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours used as a radionuclide in diagnostic imaging
  46. Tomography
    Process of taking a series of images to show an organ in layers or depth
  47. Uptake
    Rate of absorption of a radionuclide into an organ or tissue
  48. Urography
    Process of taking x-ray images of the urinary tract after injecting contrast
  49. sonographer
    Aids the physician in performing ultrasound procedures
  50. 6 characteristics of X-rays
    1. Ability to cause exposure (blackening) of a photographic plate, 2. Ability to penetrate different substances to varying degrees, 3. invisibility, 4. travel in straight lines, 5. scattering of x-rays when they come into contact with any material, 6. ionization
  51. What is ionization useful for? help kill cancerous cells and stop tumor growth
  52. Describe scattering of x-rays
    denser objects cause greater scatter; less scatter with radiolucent substances
  53. Describe xrays ability to penetrate different substances to varying degrees
    air is least dense and allows greatest transmission, followed by fat, water, and then hard materials
  54. What type of contrast agents are commonly used in CT scans?
    Iodine-containing contrast agents
  55. What do iodine-containing contrast agents do?
    outline blood vessels and confer additional density to soft tissues
  56. What are CT scans most useful for?
    Viewing bony structures and solid masses of the chest and abdomen - chest lesions, bleeding in the brain, ruptured arteries, and bone diseases
  57. Contrast studies
    Radiopaque materials are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray film
  58. What is contrast medium used for?
    To distinguish adjacent body parts composed of substances of the same density from one another
  59. What is barium sulfate used for?
    examination of the upper and lower GI tract - UGI series, SBFT, BE study
  60. Is/o
    Same
  61. Vitr/o
    Glass
  62. Ultra-
    Beyond
  63. DICOM
    Digital image communication in medicine - standard protocol for transmission between imaging devices
  64. DI
    Diagnostic image
  65. DSA
    Digital subtraction angiography
  66. IVP
    Intravenous pyelogram
  67. EUS
    Endoscopic ultrasonography
  68. 18F-FDG
    Fluorodeoxyglucose - radiopharmaceutical used in PET scanning
  69. MRV
    Magnetic resonance venography
  70. PACS
    Picture archival and communications system - replacement of traditional films with digital equivalents that can be assessed from several places and retrieved more rapidly
  71. SBFT
    Small bowel follow-through
  72. RFA
    Radiofrequency ablation
  73. US, U/S
    Ultrasound, ultrasonography
  74. 201T1
    Thallium-201
  75. UGI
    Upper gastrointestinal (series)

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