female reproductive.txt

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female reproductive.txt
2012-08-06 00:31:52

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  1. Abruptio placentae
    Premature detachment of the placenta from its place in the uterine wall
  2. Adnexa uteri
    Accessory parts of the uterus; fallopian tubes and ovaries
  3. Afterbirth
    Expelled placenta
  4. Amnion
    Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus
  5. Anovulatory
    Not accompanied by ovulation
  6. Aromatase inhibitors
    Drugs to treat ER-positive breast cancer by blocking production of estrogen by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase
  7. Bartholin glands
    Two small mucus-secreting glands near the opening of the vagina to the outside of the body
  8. Bilateral oophorectomy
    Removal of both ovaries
  9. Cephalic version
    Procedure for turning the fetus so that its head it the presenting part to enter the birth canal first
  10. Cervical erosions
    Ulcerations that appear as raw, red patches of the cervical mucosa
  11. Chlamydial infection
    Bacterial infection causing pelvic inflammation in the reproductive tract of women and men
  12. Choriocarcinoma
    Malignant tumor of the placenta
  13. Choriogenesis
    Formation of the chorion
  14. Chorion
    Outermost membrane surrounding the developing fetus; forms fetal part of the placenta
  15. Chorionic villus sampling
    Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis
  16. Coitus
    Sexual intercourse
  17. Colposcopy
    Visual examination of the vagina and uterine cervix using an optical magnifying instrument called a colposcope
  18. Conization
    Removal of cone-shaped portion of cervix
  19. Corpus luteum
    Yellow glandular mass formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum; secretes progesterone to maintain pregnancy
  20. Cryocauterization
    Use of freezing cold temperatures to burn and destroy tissue
  21. Cul-de-sac
    Region between uterus and rectum
  22. Culdocentesis
    Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the cul-de-sac
  23. Cystadenocarcinoma
    Malignant tumor containing fluid-filled sacs and glandular tissue; common in ovaries
  24. Cystadenoma
    Benign tumor of cystic and glandular components; common in ovaries
  25. Dermoid cysts
    Ovarian cysts lined with a variety of cell types
  26. Dilatation
    Widening of a hollow organ
  27. Dyspareunia
    Painful sexual intercourse
  28. Dystocia
    Difficult child birth
  29. Embryo
    Stage in prenatal development from 2 to 6 weeks
  30. Endocervicitis
    Inflammation of inner lining of the cervix
  31. Endometritis
    Inflammation of inner lining of the uterus
  32. Episiotomy
    Incision of vulva to widen the opening of the vagina during a difficult childbirth
  33. Erythroblastosis fetalis
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a blood group incompatibility between the mother and fetus
  34. Fallopian tube
    One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus
  35. Fetal monitoring
    Continuous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor
  36. Fetal presentation
    Manner in which the fetus enters the birth canal
  37. Fetus
    Stage in prenatal development from 6 to 39 or 40 weeks
  38. Fibrocystic disease
    Presence of small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast
  39. Fibroid
    Benign tumors of fibrous and muscular tissue in the uterus; leiomyomas
  40. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell
  41. Fundus
    rounded upper portion
  42. Corpus
    larger central section
  43. Galactorrhea
    Excessive or abnormal secretion of milk after breast-feeding has ended
  44. Genitalia
    Reproductive organs
  45. Gynecomastia
    Female-like breast enlargement on a male
  46. her-2/neu
    Receptor protein found in some breast cancers and signals a high risk of tumor recurrence
  47. Herceptin
    An antibody that binds to and blocks her-2/neu; effective at stopping growth when used with chemotherapy
  48. Human chorionic gonadotropin
    Secreted by the placenta to sustain pregnancy
  49. Hyaline membrane
    Acute lung disease in premature infants; respiratory distress disease syndrome of the newborn
  50. Hydrocephalus
    Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
  51. Hymen
    Mucus membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina
  52. Function of the Bartholin glands
    produce a mucus secretion that lubricates the vagina
  53. What happens in days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle?
    discharge of bloody fluid containing disintegrated endometrial cells, glandular secretions, and blood cells
  54. What happens in days 6-12 of the menstrual cycle?
    Endometrium begins to repair itself, maturing follicle in the ovary releases estrogen which aids in repair, and the ovum grows in the follicle
  55. What happens in days 13 and 14 of the menstrual cycle?
    follicle ruptures and the egg leaves the ovary and passes through the fallopian tube
  56. What happens in days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle?
    Empty follicle fills with yellow material and becomes corpus luteum, the corpus luteum secretes progesterone into the bloodstream to stimulate the building of the lining of the uterus in anticipation of fertilization of the egg. No fertilization causes the corpus luteum to stop producing progesterone and regress. After 2 days of decrease in hormones, the uterine endometrium breaks down and menstrual period begins again.
  57. Where does a fertilized egg implant?
    uterine endometrium
  58. what happens in days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle when pregnant?
    Fertilized egg travels from fallopian tube to the uterus and implants in the uterine endometrium. The corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone and estrogen to support the vascular and glandular development of the uterine lining
  59. What is the placenta derived from?
    maternal endometrium and the chorion
  60. What produces hCG?
    stimulates the corpus luteum to continue to produce hormones until the 3rd month of pregnancy when the placenta begins to release estrogen and progesterone
  61. Hysterectomy
    Removal of uterus
  62. Hysterosalpingography
    X-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
  63. Hysteroscopy
    Visual examination of the uterus
  64. Intrauterine device
    Device inserted into the uterus by a physician to prevent pregnancy
  65. Involution
    Shrinking of the uterus to normal size after childbirth
  66. Labia majora
    Outer lips of the vagina
  67. Labia minora
    Inner lips of the vagina
  68. Lactogenesis
    Production of milk
  69. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy
    Partial hysterectomy that preserves the cervix
  70. Leiomyomas
    Benign tumors of the uterus; fibroids
  71. Leukorrhea
    White vaginal discharge
  72. Lumen
    Cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ
  73. Luteinizing hormone
    Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation
  74. Mammary papilla
  75. Mammoplasty
    Surgical repair of the breast
  76. Meconium
    First stools
  77. Meconium aspiration syndrome
    Abnormal inhalation of meconium by a fetus or newborn
  78. Menometrorrhagia
    Excessive uterine bleeding during menstruation and also between menstrual periods
  79. Menstruation
    Monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus; menses
  80. Metrorrhagia
    Bleeding between menstruations
  81. Mons pubis
    A pad of tissue overlying the pubic symphysis; covered with pubic hair after puberty
  82. Multigravida
    A woman who has been pregnant more than once
  83. Multipara
    A woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
  84. Myomectomy
    Removal of muscle tumors (fibroids) from the uterus
  85. Nullipara
    A woman who has never given birth to an infant
  86. Oogenesis
    Production of egg cells
  87. Oophoritis
    Inflammation of ovary
  88. Orifice
  89. Ovarian carcinoma
    Malignant tumor of the ovary
  90. Ovarian follicle
    Tiny sac in the ovary that contains an egg cell
  91. Oxytocia
    Rapid labor and childbirth
  92. Oxytocin
    Secretion of the pituitary gland causing contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulation of milk secretion from the breast
  93. Palpation
    Process of examining by using hands or fingers on the outside of the body
  94. Pap smear
    Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix
  95. Parturition
    Act of giving birth
  96. Pelvic inflammatory disease
    Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, and endocervicitis
  97. Pelvimetry
    Measurement of the dimensions of the female pelvis
  98. Perineorrhaphy
    Suture repair of perineum
  99. Perineum
    Area between anus and vagina in females (between anus and scrotal sac in males)
  100. Placenta previa
    Placental implantation over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterine wall
  101. Preeclampsia
    Abnormal condition of pregnancy marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema
  102. Prenatal
    Before birth
  103. Primigravida
    A woman during her first pregnancy
  104. Primipara
    A woman who has given birth to her first child
  105. Primiparous
    Pertaining to a woman who has given birth to her first child
  106. Progesterone
    Hormone secreted by the ovaries; maintains the lining of the uterus and the placenta during pregnancy
  107. Pyloric stenosis
    Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum in a newborn
  108. How do reproductive hormones interact?
    GnRH leads to an upsurge of FSH and LH. FSH and LH stimulate maturation of the ovum and ovulation. After ovulation, LH influences maintenance of the corpus luteum and its production of estrogen and progesterone
  109. Hormone interactions during pregnancy
    High levels of estrogen and progesterone cause FSH and LH to stop being released.
  110. How do oral contraceptive pills work?
    contain variable amounts of estrogen and progesterone which cause blood levels of these hormones to rise (FSH and LH are not released and ovarian follicles do not mature and ovulation does not occur)
  111. 3 birth control methods?
    oral contraceptive pills, subdermal birth control implants, and intrauterine device
  112. Pyosalpinx
    Pus in fallopian tubes
  113. Radical hysterectomy
    Entire uterus with ligaments, supportive tissues, and top 1/3 of the vagina are removed
  114. Respiratory distress syndrome
    Abnormal condition in infants when a protein is missing in the lung tissues; infants has difficult respiratory function; hyaline membrane disease
  115. Retroversion
    Tipping backward of an organ or a part of the body
  116. Salpingectomy
    Removal of fallopian tube
  117. Salpingitis
    Inflammation of fallopian tubes
  118. Speculum
    Instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls
  119. Tamoxifen
    Drug to treat ER-positive breast cancer by directly blocking the ER receptor
  120. Teratoma
    Cyst lined with a variety of cell types and arise from immature egg cells in the ovary; dermoid cysts
  121. Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH)
    Removal of the entire uterus including the cervix through an abdominal incision
  122. Uterine serosa
    Outermost layer surrounding the uterus
  123. Vaginal hysterectomy (VH)
    Removal of the entire uterus through the vagina
  124. Vaginal orifice
    Opening of the vagina to the exterior of the body
  125. Vaginitis
    Inflammation of vagina
  126. What 5 things does an apgar score determine?
    heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and response to stimuli
  127. Digital tomosynthesis
    an x-ray tube moves in arcs around the breast as several images are taken producing clear 3D images
  128. What causes abruptio placentae?
    trauma or secondary vascular insufficiency from hypertension or preeclampsia
  129. Where do most ectopic pregnancies occur?
    90% in fallopian tubes
  130. Dermoid cyst
    Benign cystic teratoma or mature teratoma - lined with a variety of cell types
  131. What causes pelvic inflammatory disease?
    Bacterial infections - gonnorrhea and chlamydial infection
  132. What causes cervicitis?
    bacteria - chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  133. Who commonly gets carcinoma of the endometrium?
    Women exposed to high levels of estrogen and in nulliparous women
  134. Endometrioma
    Large, blood-dilled cysts if endometriosis reaches ovaries
  135. Vulvovaginitis
    Inflammation of vagina and vulva
  136. Zygote
    Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation to two weeks
  137. Functions of female reproductive system
    produce ova, provide a place for growth of the embryo, and supply important hormones that contribute to development of female secondary sex characteristics
  138. Function of fimbriae
    catch the egg after it is released from the ovary
  139. Function of cilia in fallopian tubes
    sweep ovum through tube (2-3 days per ovum)
  140. Where does fertilization occur?
    fallopian tubes
  141. Where does growth of the embryo occur?
  142. -arche
  143. -tocia
    Labor, birth
  144. -pareunia
    Sexual intercourse
  145. -parous
    Bearing, bringing forth
  146. Galact/o
  147. Colp/o
  148. Metro/o, metri/o
  149. Episi/o
  150. Oophor/o
  151. Phor/o
    To bear
  152. AB
  153. BSE
    Breast self-examination
  154. ASCUS
    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (Pap smear is abnormal but does not indicate specific lesion)
  155. AUB
    Abnormal uterine bleeding
  156. CIN
    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  157. CIS
    Carcinoma in situ
  158. D&C
    Dilation and currettage
  159. CVS
    Chorionic villi sampling
  160. DCIS
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (precancerous breast lesion)
  161. DES
    Diethylstilbestrol - estrogen compound used to treat menopausal problems involving estrogen deficiency
  162. DUB
    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  163. ECC
    Endocervical curettage
  164. EDC
    Estimated date of confinement
  165. EMB
    Endometrial biopsy
  166. FHR
    Fetal heart rate
  167. LAVH
    Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy
  168. HDN
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn
  169. RDS
    Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
  170. HSG
  171. IUD
    Intrauterine device; contraceptive
  172. LMP
    Last menstrual period
  173. LSH
    Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy
  174. TAH-BSO
    Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
  175. Para 2-0-1-2
    Women's reproductive history: 2 full-term infants, 0 preterm, 1 abortion, 2 living children
  176. TRAM flap
    Trans-rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (for breast reconstruction)
  177. UAE
    Uterine artery embolization
  178. VH
    Vaginal hysterectomy
  179. Uterine artery embolization
    injection of tiny pellets into uterine artery supplying blood to fibroids in order to block blood flow