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What vertebral level does the top of the iliac crest sit at?
The two dimples on a patient's upper bottom refer to what points of the pelvis?
The points of the posterior superior iliac spine.
What is the name given to the space/fold in between the buttocks?
What muscle comes through the greater sciatic foramen?
What roots are the sciatic nerve derived from?
L4 - S3
What tract does the pudendal nerve follow and which muscles does it innovate?
The pudendal nerve comes though the greater sciatica foramen (from the anterior to the posterior) and then back through the lessor sciatic foramen to the anterior surface.
It innovates the bulbospongious, the ischiocavernosus and the anal sphincter muscles and ???
Which muscle is the main flexor of the thigh and the most powerful hip flexor?
Which muscles help keep our hips stable in the coronal plane?
Gluteus medius and minimus
What happens when the abduction muscles in our hip are paralysed?
We develop Trandelenbergs position with adropped hip on the paralysed side.
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the thigh?
- Rectus femoris
- Vastus medialis
- Vastus intermedius
- Vastus lateralis
Sartorius (only muscle not considered part of the quadriceps group)
What is the function of the ITT?
The iliotibial tract is a tension band that supports the femur and prevents in from bending.
Which muscles form the adductor group of the thigh?
- Adductor brevis
- Adductor longus
- Adductor magnus - largest and most powerful adductor
- Obturator externus
Which muscles make up the posterior compartment of the thigh also known as the hamstring muscles?
- Biceps femoris (long and short head)
What is the Pes Anserinus?
The Pes Ansrinus is the common attachment site of the gracious, sartorius and semitendinosus.
What is the clinical presentation of a dislocated hip compared to a fractured hip?
A dislocated hip presents with a shortened leg and the foot rotated medially whereas a fractured hip presents with a shortened leg and a foot that is laterally rotated.
How many spinal nerves are there and what is the breakdown of each section?
31 spinal nerves in total
- Cervical - 8
- Thoracic - 12
- Lumbar - 5
- Sacral - 5
- Coccygeal -1
What nerve roots make up the lumbar and sacral plexus?
- Lumbar: T12-L4
- Sacral: L4-S4
What lies within the retro-inguinal space?
- Femoral nerve
- Femoral artery, vein and canal (surrounded by the femoral sheath)
What happens to external iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament?
The external iliac artery and vein become the femoral artery and vein upon passing through the inguinal ligament.
An inguinal hernia usually comes through which opening in the groin?
Through the saphenous opening within the femoral triangle (after coming through the femoral canal).
What nerves does the sciatic nerve split into?
- Tibial nerve
- Common fibular/peroneal nerve?
Which 3 nerves innovate the anterior, medial and posterior compartment of the thigh?
Anterior - femoral nerve (iliopsoas, sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, intermedius and lateralis)
Medial - obturator nerve (obturator externus, gracilis, adductor longus, brevis and magnus)
Posterior - sciatic nerve (semimembranosus, semeitendinosus and biceps femoris)
What is cauda equina syndrome?
Multiple nerve root compression.
What does VINDICATE stand for?
What are some causes of musculoskeletal symptoms?
- Endocrine (Osteoporosis)
- Autoimmune (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Name some inflammatory joint disorders?
- Serogenative Spondyloarthropathies (ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's syndrome and enteropathic arthritis)