APR Cards - Chapter 1

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APR Cards - Chapter 1
2012-10-04 22:18:34
APR Prep

APR test preparation
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  1. What is public relations?
    Public relations is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.
  2. How does public relations earn public uderstanding and acceptance?
    By forming, building and maintaining relationships between your organization and the public - finding common interests. Failures usually stem from communication breakdowns.
  3. What is the social significance of the practice of public relations?
    American business gave birth to public relations as it is practiced today. Growth and trends in business created the conditions for the public relations profession to develop.
  4. What are the 12 functions of public relations?
    • Competencies:
    • 1. Trusted counsel - advise and anticipate
    • 2. Internal communication - engage employees and build trust
    • 3. Media relations - public trust and support
    • 4. Community relations - public trust and support
    • 5. External communication to customers/stakeholders/investors, etc. - public trust and support

    • Public relations process:
    • 6. Research and strategize
    • 7. Plan
    • 8. Implement, execute and communicate
    • 9. Evaluate

    • Other:
    • 10. Publicity and special events
    • 11. Issues management
    • 12. Crisis communication
  5. Advertising
    Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for time or space. It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media.
  6. Brand
    A product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that is can be easily communicated and, usually, marketed. A brand name is the name of a distinguished product, service or concept.
  7. Branding
    The process of creating and/or disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.
  8. Controlled Communication Channels
    Self-sponsored communication channels, media and tools that are under direct control of the sender. Examples include paid advertising, newsletters, brochures, some types of e-mails, organizational websites and blogs, leaflets, organizational broadcasts and podcasts, intranets, teleconferences and video conferences, meetings, speeches, position papers, and all other channels and communication products under organizational control.
  9. Community Relations
    An area of public relations with responsibilities for building relationships with consistent publics such as schools, charities, clubs and activist interests of the neighborhoods or metropolitan areas where an organization operates. Dealing and communicating with the citizens and groups within an organization's operating area.
  10. Counseling
    Advising management concerning policies and communications.
  11. Crisis Communications
    Protects and defends an individual, company or organization facing a public challenge to it reputation. There challenges can involve legal, ethical or financial standing.
  12. Define Employee Relations:
    Activities designed to build sound relationships between an organization and its employees, and a critical element in fostering positive attitudes and behaviors of employees as ambassadors for the organization.
  13. Financial Relations
    An aspect of public relations responsible for building relationships with the investor public, including shareholders/stockholders, potential investors, financial analysts, the financial markets such as the stock exchange commodities exchanges, and the Securities and Exchange Commission. Dealing and communicating with the shareholders of an organization and the investment community. Also know as investor relations or shareholder relations.
  14. Government Relations
    As aspect of relationship building between an organization and government at local, state, and/or national levels, especially involving flow of information to and from legislative and regulatory bodies in an effort to influence public policy decisions compatible with an organization's interests. Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.
  15. Grassroots Organizing
    An activist practice for creating social change among average people. Grassroots organizing is based on the power of people to take collective action on their own behalf. This public relations technique is often used to sway public opinion and move legislators to action. Grasstops uses the same strategy, but with community influencers.
  16. Issues Management
    The proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations and their publics now and in the future.
  17. Lobbying
    The specialized area of public relations that builds and maintains relations with a government or its official for the primary purpose of influencing legislation and regulation.
  18. Publicity
    Information from an outside source that is used by the media because the information has news value. It is an uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media because the source does not pay the media for the placement.
  19. Press Agentry
    Creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention and to gain public notice.
  20. Staff Management
    Provides counsel and other sources to support line functions (public relations)
  21. Line Management
    Function engaged in turning organization's inputs and outputs of values to others, which affects the bottom line.
  22. Who is the single largest employer of public relations practioners?
  23. Define Branding
    The process of creating and/or disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual products and service names.
  24. Promotion
    Activities designed to win publicity or attention, especially the staging of special events to generate media coverage. Special activities designed to create and stimulate interest in a person, product, organization or cause.
  25. Reactive Public Relations
    Response to crises and putting out fires defensively rather than initiating programs. There are varying degrees of reactive PR with some situations requiring implementation of an organization's crisis plan.
  26. Media Relations
    Mutually beneficial associations between publicists or PR professionals and members of media organizations as a condition for reaching audiences with messages of news or feature of interest. Maintaining up-to-date lists of media people and a knowledge of media audience interests are crucial to the function. Dealing with the communication media in seeking publicity or responding to the interest in the organization.
  27. Issues Management
    The proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations and their publics now and in the future.
  28. Propaganda
    Persuasion based on appeals rather than on the merits of a case. Often gives only one side of an argument, making it deceitful and not in public interest.
  29. Multicultural Relations/Workplace Diversity
    Relating with people in various cultural groups.Understanding multicultural and workplace diversity continues to increase in importance. Diversity in the workplace continues to provide challenges and opportunities to public relations practitioners and other managers impacting messaging, perceptions of ideas, and services. These considerations may include issues of household composition, ages, gender, ethnic and religious backgrounds, language, technology fluency, health status or disabilities.
  30. Proactive Public Relations
    Taking the initiative to develop and apply PR plans to achieve measurable results toward set goals and objectives.
  31. Marketing Communications
    A combination of activities designed to sell a product, service or idea, including advertising, collateral materials, interactive communications, publicity, promotion, direct mail, trade shows and special events.
  32. What are the 7 types of Propaganda Devices?
    • 1. Glittering generalities (broad statements)
    • 2. Name calling (emotions)
    • 3. Transfer (guilt by association)
    • 4. Bandwagon (everybody's doing it)
    • 5. Plain folks (anti-elitism)
    • 6. Testimonials (if irrelevant)
    • 7. Card stacking (one-sided)
  33. Public Information
    Representation of a point of view in collected forms such as facts, news, messages, pictures or data; the process of disseminating such information to publics usually through mass media; a designation describing persons charged with the task os such dissemination usually on behalf of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, colleges or universities.
  34. Public Affairs
    A specialized area of PR that builds and maintains governmental and local community relations in order to influence public policy. PR practice that addresses public policy and the publics who influence such policy. Called Public Affairs because government not allowed to use publicity.
  35. Special Events
    Stimulating an interest in a person, product or organization by means of a focused "happening." Activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them.
  36. Reputation Management
    Also known as a function of crisis communication. The increased used of the Internet and related social media has given added urgency to the practice, as the immediate and anonymous nature of the Web increases the risk of communications that can damage an organization's reputation. Online reputation management is a growing specialized segment of public relations.
  37. Uncontrolled Communication Channels
    Media that are not under direct control of the company, organization or sender of message. These include newspapers, magazines, radio and television, external Websites, externally produced blogs and social media commentary and externally produced news stories.