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Laid the public acceptance and public policy foundations for the nation's telephone system. Pioneered corporate PR with AT&T. Understood the necessity for improving relationships between corporations and publics. (1883).
Theodore N. Vail
Established first corporate PR department in 1889 for his new electric corporation. He competed with Edison;s electric company. Hired Ernest H. Heinrichs to serve as his personal press representative.
Key member of President Jackson's :Kitchen Cabinet." he served as pollster, counselor, ghost writer and publicist. Jackson's political campaigns and government policies clearly reveal the influence of Kendall's strategy, sense of public opinion and skills as a communicator
From muckraking Seedbed Era. wrote History of Standard Oil Co. Produced violent public reaction.
1900-1917. Muckraking journalism countered by defensive publicity and of far-reaching political reforms promoted by Theodore Roosevelt. Ivy Lee-full disclosure and tell the truth. Bernays - Public be informed. Defensive publicity.
From muckraking Seedbed Era. Wrote novel The Jungle to expose the foul conditions in meatpacking industry. Produced violent public reaction.
From muckraking Seedbed Era. Wrote Frenzied Finance as a series in McClure's magazine.
Thomas W. Lawson
First master of press agentry. Credited with paving way for today's sports promotions like Superbowl / Dayton 500.
Seven Eras of Public Relations
- 1. Seedbed Era (1900-1916)
- 2. World War I Period (1917-1918)
- 3. Booming Twenties Era (1919 - 1929)
- 4. Roosevelt Era & WWII (1930-1945)
- 5. Postwar Era (1946 - 1964)
- 6. Period of Protest and Empowerment (1965 - 1985)
- 7. Global Information Society (1986 - Present)
First international firm (first account was to promote Philippine Islands). Founded in 1908 by Hamilton Mercer
Hamilton Wright Organization
Formed partnership with Ivy Lee during Seedbed Era
First to use full-time publicists in a fund drive. Raised $350,000 for YMCA. Easily recognized in today's United Way format.
Charles Summer Ward / Lyman Pierce
Started Committee on Public Information (CPI or the Creel Committee). Headed by George Creel. Mobilized public opinion to support effort. PR counselors to U.S. government.
President Woodrow Wilson
Married to Edward Bernays. Helped run their firm "Edward L. Bernays, Counsel of Public Relations." Kept her birth name long before accepted. Said to have influenced Bernays' ideas.
First Systematic Effort to Raise Funds
Harvard College... fund-raising brochure
At age 28, was the association chairman of the CPI (Committee on Public Information / The Creel Committee).
Arthur Page's six principles of PR
- 1. Tell the truth
- 2. Prove it with action
- 3. Listen to the customer
- 4. Manage for tomorrow
- 5. Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it
- 6. Remain calm, patient and good humored
Dramatic demonstrations of the power of organized promotion to kindle fervent patriotism: to sell war bonds, enlist soldiers and raise millions of dollars for welfare.
World War I Period (1917 - 1919)
First woman to head a national PR association as president of CASE (Council for the Advancement and Support of Education.
Alice L. Beeman
First black to serve as PRSA president and first black accredited by PRSA. His firm hired to communicate solely with black consumer market.
Joseph Varney Baker
Era of promoting products, earning acceptance of change brought on by war accelerated technology, winning political battles, raising millions for charitable causes, Anti-Saloon League and women's suffrage
Booming Twenties Era
1945 - 1965. Adjustment as nation moved from a war-oriented economy to a post-industrial, service-oriented economy and shouldered leadership of the free world. This era brought widespread acceptance of PR as the number of practitioners passed 100,000. Also brought strong professional associations, beginnings of PR education and emergence of TV as powerful medium.
- Understanding media
- "Global Village"
- The medium is in the message.
Aviation enthusiast / wartime flyer. Publicity and PR projects did much to spread America's acceptance of air age.
Harry A. Bruno
Movement toward public responsibility in private business to regain credibility; greatest government PR advancements under FDR; Roper and Gallup polls begin; paid advertising to forefront as PR tool; 1942 Office of War info.
Roosevelt and Post WWII Era
1965-Present. Accelerating technology, multiplying channels of communication and transition from a national economy to a world economy featuring global interdependence and global competition. Stresses from these profound changes placed a heavier burden on PR and its role in mediating conflicting interests to bring out mutual adjustment and accommodation
Global Information Society
Formed first political PR firm in the U.S. in 1933 with her husband and partner Clem Whitaker. Based in San Francisco.
Wrote "Public Opinion" (1922). He described several communication barriers; artificial censorship, gatekeepers in the media, shrinking news holes, limitation of social contract, meager time available to pay attention, distortion from compressing events into short messages (sound bites), difficulty expressing a big, complicated world in short messages, fear of facing facts perceived to threaten established routines.
Started social work publicity. Played a role in birth pf National Publicity Council for welfare agencies. The National Publicity Council became the National Communications Council for Human Services in 1975 and then merged into PRSA in 1977.
Evart Routzahn / Mary Swain Routzahn
- Organization - Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence
- Symbols - Liberty Tree
- Slogans - Taxation without Representation
- Staged Events - Boston Tea Party
Chairman of the Committee on Public Information during WWI, and understood the power of publicity to mobilize the public. He started the "Four Minutemen" and created "spokespersons" from key interest groups such as lawyers, actors, journalists, teachers. Used persuasive tactics to dehumanize the enemy.
Founded the American Counsel that ultimately became PRSA through mergers of other public relations organizations (1947). Began teaching PR courses at Stanford.
Key member of President Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet, he excelled at creating events to mold opinion. Pollster, counselor, ghostwriter and publicist (1820s- 30s)
An AT&T vice president who helped set the standard for corporate PR. Said a company's performance would be determined by its public reputation. (1927) Set standard for corporate PR.
Considered the father of modern PR. First to advocate factual, truthful exposition of information, abolition of secrecy in dealing with media and need for good corporate policies and performance as a requisite for favorable public recognition. Counseled Rockefellers. Official for Penn. Railroad. Teamed with George Parker in 1904 to form a PR counseling firm.
First president to exploit news media as a new and powerful tool of presidential leadership. He won battles on front pages and over radio, all a new medium. Created "New Deal" and gave "Fireside Chats."
Public relations adviser to Franklin D. Roosevelt until he died. Recognized that mutually beneficial public relationships could be built by coupling responsible performance with persuasive publicity. Served FDR from 1912-1936.
Louis McHenry Howe
Director of the Office of War Information created by FDR during WWII. Pioneered widespread use of radio, Hollywood and media to publicize the war effort.
Wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion, the first book on PR, and coined the term PR counsel. Taught the first course in PR at New York University, and was the firt to call himself a PR professional. Among the first to advocate licensure. Often referred to as the "father of public relations.: (1920s)
Edward L. Bernays