General Massage Questions

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  1. What are the effects of massage?
    • 1. Mechanical
    • 2. Physiological
    • 3. Psychological
    • 4. Reflex
  2. Describe the mechanical impact of massage
    • The effects are derived from using pressure, pumping and stretching a particular area 
    • This affects the chemical composition
    • Mechanically stretching generally improves them
  3. Describe the physiological impact of massage
    • Massage effects the functioning of the tissues
    • Improving drainage of venous blood and lymph
    • Improving nutrition 
  4. Describe the psychological impact of massage
    • Massage brings about the 'feel good' factor
    • Satisfying the need for caring and nurturing, reducing pain and anxiety, increasing feelings of being able to cope, and increasing awareness of self
    • Particularly beneficial for people with poor body image or for those udnergoing medical treatments
  5. Describe the reflex impact of massage
    • Zone lines run through the body, which divide into reflex points, mapping out different areas of the body. Massaging the feet will have profound effects because of this - reflexology
    • Reflex also refers to nervous system, where massage will increase muscle tone and stimulate peristalsis
    • Reflex arcs occur at the spinal level, where massage will effect all tissues supplied by the spinal nerves
  6. Describe the general beneficial effects of massage
    • Improved ciculation - more oxygenated blood, nutrition brought to the systems and more waste extracted
    • Improved healing - improved circulation
    • Reduction in pain - massage stimulates the brain to release natural pain killers
    • Anxiety reduction - relaxation and anxiety cannot coexist, which helps the individual to realise that they can cope
    • Relaxation effects - as the body lets go of accumulated tensions, it is able to work more efficiently as less demands being placed on it
    • More energy - tension traps energy and massage encourages energy to flow, and with that improved circulation
  7. Body Terminology - Medial
    The mid-line of the body
  8. Body Terminology - Lateral
    At the side, away from the mid-line
  9. Body Terminology - Superior
    Above, the upper of two parts
  10. Body Terminology - Inferior
    Beloq, the lower of two parts
  11. Body Terminology - Origin
    The attachment point of the muscle that is fixed
  12. Body Terminology - Insertion
    The attachment point of the muscle that is moving
  13. Body Movement - Abductor
    Where a limb is abducted from the body
  14. Body Movement - Adductor
    Where a limb moves towards the mid-line of the body
  15. Body Movement - Plantarflexion
    • Flexion of the foot towards the ground (plantar surface)
    • Pointing the toes 
  16. Body Movement - Dorsiflexion
    Flexion of the foot towards the top of the foot
  17. Body Movement - Invertor
    Muscle moves the foot medially
  18. Body Movement - Evertor
    Muscle moves foot laterally
  19. Body Movement - Elevator
    Muscle that raises a body part
  20. Body Movement - Depressor
    Muscle that lowers a body part
  21. Body Movement - Lateral Flexion
    Side bending
  22. What instances would you NOT MASSAGE due to contra-indications?
    • Pins and needles or numbness between legs - ATTEND A&E
    • If client is complaining of severe pain down BOTH legs - medical opinion (possible pathology)
    • Change in bladder or bowel functions
    • Incontinence of bladder or bowel
    • Chronic indigestion
    • Any unusual bleeding - coughing, vomiting, sexual intercourse, after menopause, bowel movements
    • Constant nose bleeds
    • Unexplained and undiagnosed lumps, swelling or bruising - anything that creates doubt
    • Changes in moles and sores that do not heal
    • Thrombosis - blood clot producing swelling and pain
    • Calf pain with no history of injury and person has come off long distance flight train or car journey - thrombosis
  23. What areas should you be careful of when massaging?
    • Front of neck
    • Around umbilicus
    • Kidney area
    • Medial and later epicondyles of humerus
    • Groin
    • Just above breasts
  24. Name SYSTEMIC contra-indications where massage is not recommended anywhere
    • In cases where the client has a fever (pyrexia) - flu, early stages of shingles, gastro-enteritis
    • Cardiovascular conditions without permission from the doctor - hypertension (fine if controlled and stable), angina pectoris, heart failure
    • Infectious diseases because of risk of spread
  25. Name GENERAL contra-indications where massage is not recommended
    • In cases where there is diminished sensation - influence of drugs and alcohol
    • Anti-coagulant therapy - a drug that prevents clots from increasing in size - obtain permission
  26. Name LOCAL contra-indications where massage must not be applied locally
    • On acute conditions - sprained ankle
    • Acute rheumatoid arthritis
    • Over broken skin - proturbent varicose veins, cases of skin disease, broken skin, open wounds, burns, recent scars, latter stages of shingles or measles
    • Over malignant tumour
    • Over recently radiated skin - wait 3 months
    • Over an elbow fracture - wait 3 months
    • Over a contraceptive device in arm
    • On clients who have had a local steroid injection - wait 3 months
    • If myositis ossificans are indicated
  27. Name situations where females may not be massaged
    • Over the abdomen during the first 3 days of menstruation or within 3 months of childbirth
    • Over abdomen during pregnancy
  28. Name the 4 basic movements of massage
    • Effeurage
    • Friction
    • Petrissage
    • Tapotement
  29. What impact does effleurage have on the body?
    • Slow and gentle movements soothe
    • Brisker movements stimulate
    • Warms up the muscle in preparation for deeper work
    • Relieves congestion in tissues
    • Soothes nerves
  30. What impact does friction have on the body?
    • Breaks up inflammatory products
    • Promotes the absorption of effusion - individual molecules
    • Loosens adherent skin  
    • Breaks up scar tissue abd adhesions
  31. What impact does petrissage have on the body?
    • Stimulates nerves
    • Promotes the functional activity of skin
    • Accelerates venous and lymphatic circulations - bringing a larger supply of arterial to the part under treatment
    • Heat production, absorption and elimination are increased
  32. What impact does tapotment have on the body?
    • Stimulates tissues
    • Most effective way of promoting nutrition and development of wasted muscles
    • Tapotement over abdomen promotes peristalsis aiding constipation
    • Improves circulation dramatically - preparing an individual for an event
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General Massage Questions

Swedish Massage and its Effects
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