Systems of the Body

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  1. What are the basic unit within the body?
    • The most basic unit is a cell
    • Cells group together to form tissues
    • Tissues group together to form organs
    • Organs group together to form systems
  2. What is a cell composed of?

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    • 1. Nucleus
    • 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • 4. Lysosome
    • 6. Golgi Apparatus
    • 7. Cell Membrane
    • 9. Mitochondrian
    • 11. Cytoplasm
  3. Detail the process of DEFFUSION
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    Diffusion is the process whereby substances come to dissolve in a fluid evenly, moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  4. Detail the process of OSMOSIS
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    Osmosis is a special form of diffusion, whereby water passes freely through a cell membrane in an attempt to equalise the concentration of dissolved substances on each side of the membrane - again from a high concentration to a low concentration.
  5. Describe the process of FILTRATION
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    Filtration is the process whereby water and its dissolved solutes are 'forced' through a membrane from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure by means of applied pressure
  6. What are the four main groups of tissue within the body?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective ... which are generalised tissues
    • Muscle
    • Nervous ... which are specialised tissues
  7. What are the functions of epithelial tissue ... and give an example of where it is found?

    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Transport
    • Excretion
    • Protection
    • Sensory 

    The skin is made up of the largest sheet of epithelial cells within the epidermis layer
  8. What are the functions of connective tissue ... and give an example of where it is found?
    • Wraps, binds, supports, protects, repairs, connects
    • Stores fat
    • Produces blood cells
    • Protects against infection
    • Connects active tissue
    • Repairs tissue damage
    • Can reproduce

    The subcutaneous layer of the skin contains adipose (fat) cells, the discs between the vertebrae are composed of fibrocartilage, and the knee joint is composed of a synovial joint, containing a hyaline conntection
  9. What are the functions of muscle tissue ... and give an example of where it is found?
    Muscle tissue contracts to aid movement.

    • There are three types:
    • Cardiac - located in the wall of the heart
    • Smooth/Visceral - located within internal organs (e.g., peristalsis)
    • Skeletal/Striated - located within skeletal muscles
  10. What are the functions of nervous tissue ... and give an example of where it is found?
    • Nervous tissue has three main functions: 

    • To sense change and relay this information from PNS to the CNS
    • The CNS integrates and interprets this information and determine an appropriate response
    • The CNS responds by relaying this information to the PNS causing muscular contraction or glandular secretion

    Nervous tissue is found can be found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  11. Describe the structure of muscle tissue
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    Each muscle fibre has an individual wrapping of fine connective tissue (endomysium); which is further wrapped together in bundles (fasciliculi covered in perimysium); which are gathered together to form the muscle belly (fascia covered in epimysium).

    Where a motor neuron comes into contact with the end plate of a muscle fibre, a neuromuscular junction is formed.
  12. Describe the structure of a nervous cell
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    A neuron has a cell body with a nucleus, from which a number of extensions arise. Called dendrites, their function is to carry information from their surroundings towards the cell body, where it is transferred to the axon, and onwards to the axon terminal. Information is passed across the synapse via electrical or chemical impulses (neurotransmitters), sending a similar reaction off in the next neuron.

    Axons are often enclosed in myselin sheath (which insulates and facilitates rapid transmission). The myelin sheath are formed by schwann cells, and the junction or space between these segments is called the node of ranvier.
  13. What are the basic structures of the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM?
    • The skin and the structures derived from it
    • Hair, nails, sweat, oil glands
  14. What are the basic structures of the SKELETAL SYSTEM?
    • All the bones
    • Associated cartilages
    • And the joints
  15. Describe the structure of a synovial joint
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    Joint surface is lined by protective layer of hyaline cartilage

    Movements between bones facilitated by synovial fluid contained within the joint cavity of the fibrous capsule and excreted by the synovial membrane

    The ligaments tie the bones together and form the outer wall of the capsule
  16. What are the basic structures of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM?
    All the muscles of the body
  17. What are the basic structures of the NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • Brain  
    • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral Nerves - composed of neurons (motor, sensory, interneurons)
    • Sense organs - skin (touch), eyes (sight), nose (smell), mouth (taste), ears (hearing)
  18. What are the basic structures of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM?
    • All the glands that produce hormones:
    • 1. Pituitary
    • 2. Pineal
    • 3. Thyroid
    • 4. Parathyroid
    • 5. Thymus
    • 6. Adrenals
    • 7. Pancreas - Islets of Langerhans
    • 8. Gonads (ovaries and testes)
  19. What are the basic structures of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM?
    • Heart
    • Blood Vessels
    • Blood
  20. Decribe the structure of the heart
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  21. What are the basic structures of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM?
    • Lymph
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lymphatic Capillaries
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Lymph Trunk
    • Structures and organs containing lymphatic tissue -
    • 1. Spleen
    • 2. Thymus Gland
    • 3. Lymph Nodes
    • 4. Tonsils
    • 5. Red Bone Marrow
  22. What are the basic functions of the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM?
    • Temperature regulation - secretion of sweat, constraction of hair follicles
    • Elimination - of waste (smelly after drinking)
    • Sensation - temperature, pressure, pain
    • Protection - the skin is slightly acidic, killing bacteria, keeps the organs in and cushions underlying tissues
    • Absorption - e.g., essential oils
    • Self-Maintenance - epithelial cells are contuously renewed
    • Vitamin D formation 
    • Melanin formation
  23. What are the basic functions of the SKELETAL SYSTEM?
    • Supports framework
    • Provides attachments for muscles
    • Forms joints to provide movement
    • Produces red blood cells in the bone marrow
    • Mineral Storage - calcium and phosphorus
    • Protection - e.g., patella
    • Energy storage - fat stored in yellow bone marrow
  24. What are the basic functions of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM?
    • To contract and produce movement
    • Maintains posture, stabilise joints and maintain position of body
    • To alter pressure in body - diaphragm brought in causes suction of blood and lymph vessles
    • To produce heat
  25. What are the basic functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • SENSE
    • MOTOR on
  26. What are the basic functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM?
    • Regulate the bodies activities through hormones released by the glands and transported by the cardiovascular system
    • Maintain homeostasis
  27. What are the basic functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM?
    • Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • Carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells
    • Maintains the acid-balance of the body
    • Protects against disease
    • Prevents haemorrhage by forming blood clots
    • Helps to regulate body temperature
  28. What are the basic functions of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNE SYSTEM?
    • Returns proteins and plasma to the CV system
    • Assists fluid balance by draining fluid from tissues
    • Transports fats from the gastrointestinal tract to the CV system - where it travels to liver for absorption
    • Filters fluid and waste products from the insititial spaces between the cells, 'trapping' microorganisms
    • Protects against foreign invaders that cause disease such as cancer
    • Producing white blood cells
  29. What effect does massage have on the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM?
    • Improved circulation - leading to more waste products being eliminated 
    • Nutrition and activity of skin increased
    • Improved skin colour - massage boosts circulation, invigorating colour
    • Improved skin tone and texture - strokes of massage speed up the removal of dead skin cells encouraging regeneration of skin cells and better tone
    • Improved elasticity - massage encourages production of sebum which helps to keep the skin lubricated, preventing dryness
    • Body temperature is raised
    • Formation of T cells is stimulated, assisting the immune system
  30. What effect does massage have on the SKELETAL SYSTEM?
    • There are many affects on the bones, though obviously not directly
    • Improvements to the circulation of blood and lymph in muscles leads to improved circulation in the bones underlying them - improving nutrition, growth and repair
    • Massage reduces muscle spasms - encouraging the mobility of joints, and thus encouraging healthy joints
    • Massage encourages greater flexibility, resisting injury by reducing stiffness
    • Discourages formation of scar tissue and makes laid down scar tissue more efficient and mobile
    • Massage increases awareness of self, aiding posture
    • Massage increases tone and reduces tension
  31. What effect does massage have on the MUSCULAR SYSTEM?
    • Improves ciculation to muscles - improving nutrition, development and healing 
    • Encourages drainage of waste products - helps to prevent/relieve muscle stiffness
    • Relieves pain from muscle spasm - acute and chronic
    • Encourages greater flexibility in muscles - which reduces likelihood of injury by reducing stiffness
    • Helps preparation for intensive use
    • Discourgaes the formation of excess scar tissue, and makes previous scar tissue become more efficient and mobile
  32. What effect does massage have on the NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • All tissues of the body are influenced by massage - can be stimulated (tapotement) or sedated (effleurage) by using different techniques 
    • Improves nutrition of nerves
    • Encourages relaxation and stress reduction by engaging the parasympathetic nervous system - encouraging the body to work more efficiently
    • Reduces fatigue, provides a relaxed state of alertness, reduces fear and anxiety, and restores feelings of being able to cope 
    • Increased relaxation reduces pain - release of body's painkillers
  33. What effect does massage have on the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM?
    • Produces slight increase in hormone production
    • Aids in flow of hormones
    • Affects Nervous System and Endocrine System simultaneously - encouraging relaxation and reducing stress
  34. What effect does massage have on the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM?
    • Improves general circulation
    • Increases the amount of blood brought to the area being massaged
    • Where, heat causes tissues to warm, blood vessels to dilate, aiding venous and lymphatic drainage
    • Improves nutrition of blood vessels
    • Assists in the removal of metabolic wastes
    • Leads to relaxation by stimulating paparasympathetic nervous system - heart does not have to work as hard, reducing risk of disease
  35. What effect does massage have on the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM?
    • Massage accelerates the flow of lymph through body - as LS is open and requires suction or muscle contraction to circulate
    • Pressure on tissue aids absorption - waste products are absorbed into LS and eliminated quicker
    • Old swellings can be reduced
    • Massage strengthens immune system - encouraging the growth of T cells 
    • Feel good factor promotes better chemistry
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Systems of the Body

Systems of the Body and How they Works
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