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What is the most common cause of death 24-48 hours after a myocardial ischemic event?
Ventricular fibrillation (arrhythmia)
What is dynamic compression of the airways?
Refers to the partial collapse of airways that occurs during most of the forced expiration. This limits any further increase in the expiratory flow rate by an additional expiratory effort.
What is an AVM
- Complex tangles of congenitally malformed vessels
- Usually centers over one of the cerebral hemispheres
- hemorrhage may extend into the subarachnoid space
- present with signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation
What is specifically suggestive of congestive heart failure in a patient >40 yoa.
A new onset third heart sound = eccentric hypertrophy (systolic HF)
When Pulmonary wedge pressure is considerably higher than left ventricular end-diastolic pressure = ?
What does a pacemaker action potential look like
What does a ventricular action potential look like
What are 2 equations for mean arterial pressure?
Diastolic pressure + 1/3(pulse pressure)
Why are arterioles great BP regulators?
Large number and vasoconstrictive properties
What are the 2 main types of vascular compliance?
Static- old age and brittling of the veins
Dynamic- vasoconstriction of the veins as in exercise
What are the layers of the heart?
- Fibrous pericardium
- parietal pericardium
- pericardial cavity
What is WPW syndrome?
Blocked AV -> reentry via bundle of Kent
What forms the Right atrium?
- Primitive atrium -> roguh part
- right horn of sinus venosus -> sinus venarum
What is Ficks principle?
CO = VO2/ (Ca-Cv)
What is the equation for ejection fraction?
Stroke volume/ End diastolic volume
What causes this?
- Aortic stenosis
- Inc aortic pressure (atherosclerosis)
What would the pressure volume loop look like for Mitral regurgitation?
When is the pressure rising at its most rapid rate in the ventricle?
During isovolumetric contraction, where pressure is increasing but pressure remains the same.
What can be used to estimate central venous pressure?
Jugular venous distention, a reflection of right atrial pressure.
Why do capillaries have the lowest velocity of blood flow?
Capillaries have the largest total cross sectional area
velocity is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of blood vessels.
What are the key features of aortic insufficiency?
- Increased pulse pressure
- Diastolic murmur best heard along the lower left sternal border.
What is the presentation of ostium secundum septal defect?
- 10 year child with exercise intolerance.
- Systolic murmur midsternum border
- and fixed S2 split
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