MBBS - Anatomy

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MBBS - Anatomy
2012-08-07 20:40:00

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  1. List the two zones defined within the respiratory system and the structures within them?
    • Conducting Zone -¬†
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Terminal bronchioles¬†

    • Transitional and Respiratory Zone -
    • Respiratory bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveolar sacs
  2. What type of epithelium lines the respiratory tract?
    • Oropharynx - stratified squamous (non-keratinised)
    • Larynx - pseudostratified columnar ciliated
    • Trachea - same as larynx
    • Respiratory Bronchioles - simple cuboidal
  3. In asthma which cells play the biggest role?
    • Mast cells
    • Eosinophils
    • T lymphocytes
    • Macrophages
    • Neutrophils
    • Epithelial cells
  4. What is the difference between IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM?
    • IgA - found in mucosal areas such as the gut, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, tears, breastmilk and saliva and prevents colonisation by pathogens.
    • IgD - functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens before. It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors.
    • IgE - binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms.
    • IgG - provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens and is the only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to the fetus.
    • IgM - expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG.
  5. What are the 5 types of asthma?
    • Atopic
    • Non-atopic
    • Aspirin induced
    • Occupational
    • Allergic Aspergillosis
  6. How is asthma diagnosed?
    Both through spirometry and clinical history.
  7. What is the diffprince between exudate and transudate?
    • Exudate - has proteins in the pus
    • Transudate - no proteins in the pus
  8. What are the hallmarks of pneumonia?
    • Cough with protein rich exudate
    • Alveolar inflammation
    • Polymorphs and then later lymphocytes and macrophages
    • Lobar or bronchopneumonia (which is patchy)
  9. Possible outcomes of pneumonia?
    • Resolution
    • Organisation
    • Abcess formation
    • Empyema
    • Bacteremia
    • Death
  10. What are the two main causes of pneumonia?