MBBS - Anatomy
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List the two zones defined within the respiratory system and the structures within them?
- Conducting Zone -
- Terminal bronchioles
- Transitional and Respiratory Zone -
- Respiratory bronchioles
- Alveolar ducts
- Alveolar sacs
What type of epithelium lines the respiratory tract?
- Oropharynx - stratified squamous (non-keratinised)
- Larynx - pseudostratified columnar ciliated
- Trachea - same as larynx
- Respiratory Bronchioles - simple cuboidal
In asthma which cells play the biggest role?
- Mast cells
- T lymphocytes
- Epithelial cells
What is the difference between IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM?
- IgA - found in mucosal areas such as the gut, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, tears, breastmilk and saliva and prevents colonisation by pathogens.
- IgD - functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens before. It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors.
- IgE - binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms.
- IgG - provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens and is the only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to the fetus.
- IgM - expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG.
What are the 5 types of asthma?
- Aspirin induced
- Allergic Aspergillosis
How is asthma diagnosed?
Both through spirometry and clinical history.
What is the diffprince between exudate and transudate?
- Exudate - has proteins in the pus
- Transudate - no proteins in the pus
What are the hallmarks of pneumonia?
- Cough with protein rich exudate
- Alveolar inflammation
- Polymorphs and then later lymphocytes and macrophages
- Lobar or bronchopneumonia (which is patchy)
Possible outcomes of pneumonia?
- Abcess formation
What are the two main causes of pneumonia?
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