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Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1983). Measuring leisure motivation. Journal of leisure research, 15(3), 219–228.
What were the 4 factors that came out of the study?
- examine leisuremotivation and to develop an instrument for assessing it.
- instrument assesses the psychological and sociological reasonsjor participation in leisure activities
- divided into jour subscales.
- The four subscales, consisting of 12 items each, were entitled: Intellectual, Social, Competence-Mastery, and Stimulus-Avoidance.
- An "intellectual" factor was clearly defined and in-cluded those items initially written to measure learning, creative, and aestheticmotives.
- A "stimulus avoidance" factor was also clearly defined and includeditems dealing with relaxing and avoiding stressful situations.
- Intellectual factor - mental activities such as learning, exploring, discovering, thought or imagining
- Competence mastery- individuals seek to achieve, master, challenge, and compete
- Stimulus Avoidance- the drive to escape and get away from over-stimulating life situations.
- Social - has to do with friendship/social motives
- Surveyed 1205 individuals on their leisure motivations
- Factor reliabilities of 0.90 or above
Klenosky, D. B. (2002). The “Pull” of Tourism Destinations:
A Means-End Investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 40(4), 396–403.
What is means-end theory? How is mean-end applied in this study?
- Means-end theory is based on the idea that products, and the attributes they possess, represent the “means” by which consumers obtain important consequences or benefits and reinforce important personal values or “ends” (Gutman 1982).
- The study itself was weak as it only surveyed 53 college students at a Midwest university to identify the higher level meanings associated with the pull attributes of potential spring break destinations.
- Klenosky provides a large table of 10 studies using push-pull theory and the push&pull factors identified for each study.
Manfredo, M. J., Driver, B. L., & Tarrant, M. A. (1996).
Measuring leisure motivation: A meta-analysis of the recreation experience preference scales. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(3), 188–213.
Define recreation experience.
- The "package" or "bundle" of psychological outcomes desired from a recreation engagement (Driver, 1976;Driver & Brown, 1975; Driver & Knopf, 1976).
- To ensure a basis in psychological theory and to achieve content validity, items were identified by reviewing the personality trait and motivation literature to determine the types of needs and motivations that might influence recreation.
- Items were then developed through brainstorming or adaptation of existing psychometric scales that might measure these concepts.
- Was able to obtain data from 36 prior studies using REP and conducted a CFA using a correlation matrix of the data
- Identified a number of different factors from 108 items.
- Weakness of this scale was that the studies in the meta-analysis were from 1975-1979.
- Following Nunnally's (1978) recommendation, analpha of .60 or greater is necessary before the scale is used further.??
Ryan, C., & Glendon, I. (1998). Application of leisure motivation scale to tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 169–184.
Four factors identified?
- Came up with 4 factors, social, relaxation, escape, and competence mastery
- Surveyed hollidaymakersPerformed a cluster analysis to explain different demographics and their motivations for travel
- Stated that LMS is the best measure in tourism for motivation due to its repeated validation
Yoon, Y. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45–56.
- Attempts to extend thetheoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationships among the push and pull motivations, satisfaction, and destination loyalty
- Motivation has been referred to as psychological/biological needs and wants, including integral forcesthat arouse, direct, and integrate a person’s behaviorand activity (Dann, 1977)
- People travel because they are pushed and pulled to do so by‘‘some forces’’ or factors (Dann, 1977, 1981).
- According to Uysal and Hagan (1993), these forces describe howindividuals are pushed by motivation variables into making travel decisions and how they are pulled or attracted by destination attributes.
- In other words, the push motivations are related to the tourists’ desire, while pull motivations are associated with the attributes of the destination choices.
Yoon, Y. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45–56.
- Push motivations can be seen as the desire for escape,rest and relaxation, prestige, health and ﬁtness, adven-ture and social interaction, family togetherness, andexcitement (Crompton, 1979).
- One limitation could be that they used a 4pt Likert scale rather than traditional 5 or 7pt.
- 24items push, 28items for pull motivations
- Did not indicate where these items came from other than 'previous studies'
What does ISEM stand for?
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985).
A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.
- Original article on ServQual on the development of the
- service quality model.
- Reported the insights obtained in an extensive exploratory investigation of quality in four service businesses and developed a model of service quality.
- Used in-depth interviews and focus groups to design the model.
Knutson, B., & Stevens, P. (1990). LODGSERV: A service quality index for the lodging industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 14, 277–284.
- LODGSERV is a 26-item index (alpha P .92) designed to measure consumers’ expectations for service quality in the hotel experience.
- The index confirms the five generic dimensions of service quality hypothesized by Parsuraman, Zeithaml and Berry ( I 986): Tangibiiity, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy.
- This paper describes fhe development of the index and discusses its use as a management tool.
- content validity for LODGSERV is assumed....
- The construct "Reliability," had a reliability coeficient of 0.63 which is relatively low, though the author stated otherwise.
- 5 dimensions, 26 items.
- Consumers have high expectations for service quality when it comes to staying in a hotel.
- The most critical dimension in lodgserv is RELIABILITY. Travelers want dependability; they want utilities and equipment to workconsistently, and if a problem does arise, they want it quickly corrected.
- Assurance was ranked 2nd most important. This deals with a hotel's employees conveying trust and confidence
- Lodgserv is a reliable and valid index to measure consumer expectations for service quality in hotels.
- Can show a hotel company how it compares with its competition on service quality.
SERVQUAL is an instrument for measuring the gap between the service that consumers think should be provided and what they think actually has been provided.
Stevens, P., Knutson, B., & Patton, M. (1995). DINESERV: A tool for measuring service quality in restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, (April), 56–60.
- Used a 7pt liker scale
- surveyed 200 fine dining, casual dining, and quick service restaurants each
- DINESERV.per, is designed specifically for continual assessment of customers' perceptions of your restaurant's quality.
- Scale is reliable and valid
Five dimensions of service quality?
- Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately
- Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence
- Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service
- Tangibles: Physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel
- Empathy: Caring, individualized attention
Tsang, N. K. F., Lee, L. Y. S., Wong, A., & Chong, R. (2012). THEMEQUAL—Adapting the SERVQUAL Scale to Theme Park Services: A Case of Hong Kong Disneyland. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(5), 416–429.
- Because ofthe scarcity of literature on theme park service quality, the present study adapts the SERVQUAL model and modiﬁes it as the THEMEQUAL model to measure the gap between perceived service quality andexpected service quality from visitors under the theme park setting.
- The Hong Kong Disneyland is selected.
- The impact of the dimensions of themodel on visitor satisfaction is also examined. Results expressed visitor satisfaction in terms of physicalenvironment, but signiﬁed dissatisfaction on employee performance. Among the six dimensions of themodel, “responsiveness and access,” “assurance,” and “empathy” are the critical predictors of visitors satisfaction.
- Staff performance at the park was below visitor satisfaction
Pure service is ...
Pure service is intangible, meaning it issomething that “cannot be seen, touched, heldor stored,” as it does not have any physicalmanifestation (Schneider & White, 2004, p. 5).
Five critical factors of service quality
- Core service or service product: The core service portrays the “content” of a service. It portrays the“what” of a service; i.e., the service product is whatever featuresare offered in a service.
- Human element of service delivery: These factors refer to all aspects (reliability, responsiveness,assurance, empathy, moments of truth, critical incident, andrecovery) that fall under the domain of human element in servicedelivery.
- Systematization of service delivery: Non-humanelement: The processes, procedures, systems, and technology that would make a service a seamless one. Customers always like and expect the service delivery processes to be perfectly standardized, streamlined, and simpliﬁed so that they could receive the service without any hassles, hiccups, or undesired / inordinate questioning by the service providers.
- Tangibles of service—Servicescapes: The tangible facets of the service facility (equipment, machinery,signage, employee appearance, etc.) or the man-made physicalenvironment, popularly known as the “servicescapes”
- Social responsibility: Social responsibility helps an organization to lead as a corporatecitizen in encouraging ethical behavior in everything it does.These subtle but nevertheless forceful elements send strongsignals toward improving the organization’s image and goodwilland consequently inﬂuence the customers’ overall evaluation ofservice quality and their loyalty to the organization.
Knutson, B. J., Beck, J. a., Kim, S., & Cha, J. (2008). Identifying the Dimensions of the Guest’s Hotel Experience. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50(1), 44–55.
Four factors. Define each.
- This article identifies the underlying dimensions of aguest’s hotel experience, using data from a web-based survey of guests at a midwestern hotel and conference center.
- Eeighteen-item index consisting of four factors: environment, accessibility, driving benefit, and incentive.
- This four-factor structure of Hotel Experience Index also shows evidence of both convergent and discriminant validity.
- Critical dimensions of hotel experience:
Benefit: The advantage of the guest staying at the hotel, safety, reliability, consistency, location, fitness center, room service, business center, other utility
Convenience: Time based, Logical configuration of guest room and hotel facility, readily available amenities, ease in room booking
- Incentive: Price, Worth, including accumulating guest
- Environment: Stimulating, entertaining, motivating,
- interactive environment, consistent theme, from (Parasuraman et al., 1985) tangible dimension
Wall, E., & Berry, L. L. (2007). The Combined Effects of the Physical Environment and Employee Behavior on Customer Perception of Restaurant Service Quality. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(1), 59–69.
What are mechanic clues?
Subjects were shown pictures and videos and asked to rate their reaction to the restaurant’s environment and the serviceemployees’ behavior using 7-point Likert-type scales
Mechanic clues are nonhuman ele-ments in the service environment consistingof design and ambient factors, includingequipment, facility layout, lighting, andcolor.
Functional clues are the basis of a restau-rant’s success. Few managers would dis-agree that tasteful, wholesome food servedat an appropriate temperature is a essentialto a positive dining experience.
Humanic clues deal with the employees of the company
- Authors found humanic clues much more influential in determining service quality than mechanic ones.
- This is why restaurants can have a poor environment, but great service and food and still succeed.
Lim, Y., Chung, Y., & Weaver, P. a. (2012). The impact of social media on destination branding: Consumer-generated videos versus destination marketer-generated videos. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(3), 197–206.
- This study investigates consumer perception of destination brands createdby consumer-generated videos and destination-marketing organization videos.
- The findings suggestthat consumer-generated videos do not carry the same destination brand as destination marketer-generated videos.
- used YouTube for data col-lection purposes.
- Videos posted by individuals and videos postedby DMOs were selected as consumer-generatedcontent and marketer-generated content.
- To mea-sure consumer perception about destinationbrands, this study used video comments left onYouTube.
- Two separate content analyses wereconducted to analyze the comments associatedwith both the CGVs and marketer-generatedvideos (MGVs).
- In addition, consumer-generated videos have little positive impact on a destination brand.
- This study provides insight into destination-branding strategies with respect to the roles thatsocial media plays in creating destination-brand identity and image.
What is a brand?
A brand is defined ‘‘as name, term sign,or combination of them intended to identify thegoods and services of one seller or group of sellersand to differentiate them from those of the compe-tition’’ (Kotler, 2000: 404);
Hennig-Thurau, T., Malthouse, E. C., Friege, C., Gensler, S., Lobschat, L., Rangaswamy, A., & Skiera, B. (2010). The Impact of New Media on Customer Relationships. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 311–330.
- This study identifies new media phenomena which companies should take into account when managing their relationships with customers.
- For each phenomenon, the authors identify challenges for researchers and managers which relate to (a) the understanding of consumer behavior, (b) the use of new media to successfully manage customer interactions, and (c) the effective measurement of customers’ activities and outcomes.
- Elaborate predictive models exist for TV in order to predict the type of progamming that will be popular, but the same cannot be said for sites like Youtube.
- Flagship brand stores on Second Life and find such stores to positively influence consumers’ brand attitudes and real-life purchase intentions toward the brand
- Introduces the concept of E-WOM. People posting in various places about their consumption experience.
- Discussed location-bassed applications such as Iphone's 'aroundme' which shows all the local businesses near a customer.
Noone, B. M., McGuire, K. a, & Niemeier (eds.), H.-M. (2011). Social media meets hotel revenue management: Opportunities, issues and unanswered questions. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 10(4), 293–305.
- First, wepresent a framework for evaluating SM-relatedRM opportunities.
- Second, we discuss a numberof issues that are central to assessing the potentialrole and scope of SM in RM and propose aroadmap for future research in the domain.
- RM has begun to evolve from this tacticalorientation to a more strategic role within hotelorganizations that encompasses marketing, salesand channel strategy.
- Historically, revenue managers weretasked with opening and closing predefinedroom rates based on predicted demand such thatthe best combination of occupancy and rate wasachieved for any given night.
- Broader set of responsibilities across anumber of domains including pricing, manage-ment of the entire revenue stream (total hotelrevenue management), and a customer-centric approach to developing demand.
- The framework classifies SM-related RMopportunities across two dimensions: (1) infor-mation flow and (2) time orientation (Table 1).
- Information flow can be categorized as inboundor outbound in nature.
- Inbound informationflow refers to the customer-generated content,such as user reviews, ratings, photos, videos and comments
- SM provides the ideal platform and data source to support RM’s efforts tobuild a business strategy, expand RM into other revenue-generating assets and become morecustomer-centric. Inbound communicationcan help the firm identify short-term opportu-nities to push pricing and promotions, as well aslong-term opportunities to learn more about customers, identify new market segments andposition against competition.
- Tactically, outbound communications push offers to sell dis-tressed inventory in the short-term, orstrategically build trust, increase the economicvalue of the customer and increase retention.
Weber, K. (2001). OUTDOOR ADVENTURE TOURISM A Review of Research Approaches. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2), 360–377.
- Adventure recreation eventually evolved from outdoor recreation, which has evolved from to more risk seeking behavior.
- what they do seek isto match their skills and competence with the situational risk.
- while learning and gaining insight
Ewart, A., & Hollenhorst, S. (1989). Testing the adventure model: Empirical support for a model of risk recreation participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 21(2).
risk takes on a central role as satisfaction with theexperience, and a desire to participate may decrease if risk is absent.
Define adventure tourism.
Adventure tourism is a concept that scholars use to define activities that normally occur outdoors and appear exciting to the consumer (Buckley, 2007).
Types of activities. Usually includes a little bit of risk.
backpacking, kayaking, sailing, snowshoeing, spelunking, sky diving, rock climbing, rafting, mountaineering, ballooning, zorbing, hang-gliding, diving, and bicycling
Lyng, S. (1990). Edgework: A Social Psychological Analysis of Voluntary Risk Taking. American journal of Sociology, 95(4), 851–886.
- Voluntary risk taking
- Many Americans seek experiences that have high potential for injury or even death
- some people place a higher value on the experience of risk taking than they do on achieving the final ends of the risky undertaking
- edgework activities all involve a clearly observable threat to one's physical or mental well-being or one's sense of an ordered existence.
- The archetypical edgework experience is one in which the individual's failure to meet the challenge at hand will result in death or, at the very least, debilitating injury.
posits that the personal meaning we derive from activities pertaining to leisure can be conceptualized as enduring involvement.(Mcintyre, 89)
enjoyment, self-expression, importance
pleasure derived from participation in an activity
mportance represents the meaning that that adventure tourism activity has for the consumer.
the degree to which participants express their individuality through the setting
Centrality to lifestyle
Centrality to lifestyle is the extent to which consumers’ social bonds circulate around a leisure activity.
- Edgeworkers are people that engage in edgework activities. The sensations that edgeworkers feel when they engage in risky edgework activities can include fear during the
- moments leading up to the activities following by feelings of exhilaration (Lyng, 1990).
Attachment can be defined as an emotional bond between a consumer and a specific place
those dimensions of the self that define the individual’s personal identity in relation to the physical environment,
person’s perception of their association and dependence on a particular place