Though the German army was advancing, Soviets suddenly held fast
Battle of Moscow- Fall 1941- Winter 1942 military evacuation at some point, but no advancement. In late demember, they pushed German army back 100 miles from city, just witheld, not retreat
The Seige of Leningrad- Sept 1941- Jan. 1944 surrounded city for 900 days, starvation, war of agression and destruction, did not surrender, proved they wanted to protect homeland.
The Battle of Stalingrad- Fall 1942- Winter 1943 seizing this city meant stopping lubricants fortanks and other machines. Most important battle, became bloodiest in history, illegal for German army to retreat, Soviets surrounded them. After this, all German troops began retreating
Battle of Kursk- summer 1943 Germans tried to use Blitzkrieg, Soviets ready with a counter attack, knew how to absorb the blow and hold the line, forced Germans to retreat. It was last ditch offensive to win the war for Germany.
Franco Prussian War
After the King of Spain died, it was Germany's term to appoint a ruler. France did not want this because they felt that Germany was too weak.
Threaten to declare war if Prussia does not renounce their claim.
Bismark held fast and they went to war. Within a month, France had to surrender. In the process, Prussia also took two territories back for thier country. Process of completing country more or less complete.
Austria-Hungary archduke that was visiting Serbia. Was assassinated by terrorists June 28th, 1914. Triggired the start of WWI
Philosopher who enjoyed imagining a world where God didn't have an active role
Many famous philosophical writings and sayings including "What does not kill me makes me stronger"
Believed Christianity was the worst kind of lie, theysay weakness is good, hesaysChristianity should be replaced with strength and power
Influential to Nazis
birds that Darwin studied in South America. By comparing it to finches on neighboring islands, Darwin was able to form his theory of evolution
19 year old member of the terrorist group who planned the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
He was the one who ended up killing the archduke
Leader of the Jacobins
Rallied civilians to join the fight during the French revolution
Gave a moving speech thatr made people rise up in spirit of nationalism.
Italian revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from Habsburg empire
Name Napolean gave to the French army he had esembled to invade English Channel
Did not achieve primary goals because they had to be re-deployed to defend against Austrian and Russian armies
genodcide of over 6 million jews by the Nazis during WWII
Considered a modern idea, gives human beings less value
political doctrine that rejects or disregards the “rights” of citizens. It’s in order to make a small state. Iran is a liberal, theocracy, no freedom of speech, election is a scam. N. Korea, one leader chooses all.
Illiberalism spread throughout Europe, war showed old governments were too weak. It could take 2 forms, communism, fasicism
Term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946
Refers to the division of Western Europe, under American influence, from Eastern Europe, under the Soviet Union
Radical French political party that came into existance during French Revolution
Executed the French king and sought to remake french culture
Leader was Danton
well meaning, but innefectual king of France. Ruling during the French Revolution. Tried to escape but was caught by rampaging women and forced to stay in the castle. Was eventually guillotined by revolutionaries.
Was appointed King of France after Napolean lost his wars.
France became monarchy again conservatives took over again. Need order, not freedom
King for 10 years
if you accept everyone was unequal, everything will work better, no wars.
Age of restoration
Monarchy was only temporary
Democracy remerged in 1830 with a revolution
called himself "King of the French" King of the people
Didn't set himself higher than others, was more approachable
scottish inventor that invented the dteam engine in 1769
A journalist during the French Revolution
Wrote many angry articles that kept up the flow of violence
Killed by another revolutionary follower
John Stuart Mill
believed people could make good choices if gov. allowed them to
Do whatever you want as long as you don't hurt yourself or others
Feelings don't count as harm
Leader of Soviet Union
Leader of Russia during WWII and Cold War
Tried to improve Russia through rapid industrialization and narrowing the idea of communnism to one belief.
French Revolution of 1830
Overthrew Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe
London pollution in 1952
4,000 people died
shifted to the east and given to other people
Fight between communist korea and democratic korea
General McArthur sent to help South Korea win, almost went all the way to China
Eventually, Korea was divided in the middle
Considered one of the moments where the Cold War almost tunred hot
Lizzie van Zyl
child who died in Boehrman conentration camp
considered mentally sick because she couldn't understand language
National anthem of the French
Came from the revolution, called for the death of the enemies of France
May their impure blood water our lands
Strong voice of nationalism
American response to WWII
Countries could trade with U.S. Funds used to buy food and fuel
the reason we got in trouble was because countries were poor, therefore aggressive and dangerous
almost all western europe recieved grants, especially France and England
Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx
German social scientists that were the founding fathers of communism
produced Communist Manifesto
Influential figure for French Revolution
Became leader and organized the beheading of Louis XVI
Largely dominated Committee of Public Safety
the first self-powered machine gun, invented by the American-born British inventor Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884.
last Soviet leader, appointed 1985
thought violence was a short term solution
Perestroika (reconstruction) wanted more economic freedom not every decision would have to come from gov
If we’re going to reform, we need protests or we won’t know what needs to be done
Nature- Potentially infinite Universe
Humanity is a small speck in a big circle, one little species on a rock
Universe isn’t designed by God for redemption, it keeps moving. Decreases dignity of humanity
political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement
Trained as lawyer in London, knew how to play legal game
british could give up colonies by shaming them
Lead many movements including Salt March and Quit India
an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and signed in Moscow in the early hours of 24 August 1939
pledged neutrality by either party if the other were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941 when Germany implemented Operation Barbarossa, invading the Soviet Union.
an agreement permitting Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland
The state of Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference
chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin
people exposed to mustard gas rarely suffer immediate symptoms
Used in WWI
Elected leader of France after French Revolution, Named himself emperor, calling himself Napolean I
forced Italy to be ally in 1797
the President of the French Second Republic and the ruler of the Second French Empire
Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he undertook a coup d'état in 1851, becoming dictator before ascending the throne as Napoleon III
He ruled as Emperor of the French until September 4, 1870
Last monarch of France
Created June 1789
start of the French Revolution
was a law-making body for the country
It was their right/duty to make constitution
better known as Nazism
stresses the belief in the supremacy of an Aryan master race
two prime beliefs, first: To be great, must be strong. Second, deeper reason they lost, conspiracy of the jews that want to take over the world and destroy germany
Nature Red in Tooth and Claw
There isn’t a harmony in the natural world,
species go extinct unless they find a way to survive.
Nature isn’t a friendly place, there is a constant struggle.
Losers die, winners prosper.
the last Tsar of Russia
Couldn’t handle change, Tsar didn’t want any change at all.
He made an oath ot his father. He doesn’t know what to do, so he’ll keep it exactly the same
colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers
aggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions and the emergence in some colonizing countries of doctrines of racial superiority which purported to explain the unfitness of backward peoples for self-government.
second phase of Russian revolution
overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks
Lead by Bolsheviks
the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941
military offensive in history
operational goal was rapid conquest of the European part of the Soviet Union
Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862–1890
oversaw the unification of Germany
Over the Top
strategy in trench warfare
jump out of trenches and jump out catching them by surprise.
They never had enough time to do this
Refers to Gorbachev's attempts to reform the communist system
Alexander Dubcek became leader in Check
Communist but wanted to reform socialism, more freedom of expression
Outpouring of support. Warm and sunny time. Optimism filled the country,
there could be a middle ground between communism and capitalism.
Soviet union were scared. Soviets sent in tanks in 1968 and reinstalled soviet order,
forced Dubcek to resign, his ideas were put down.
Soviets thought they were being strong,
but they ruined the sympathy that some in the west had.
They put down a peaceful democratic movement
Revolutions of 1848
French Prime Minister tries to calm people from famine
national guards sided with rioters
every male adult can vote now
Other countries tried to start revolutions but failed