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Constitive activation of Ca2+-sensing receptors in the parathyroid glands causes what?
Low PTH secretion -> hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia
What are the lab values in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves disease?
- Increased serum T4
- increased radioactive iodine uptake
- increased resin T3 uptake
- decreased plasma TSH
- increased [thyroglobulin]
Chronic low levels of magnesium affect calcium levels.
How and Why?
Low levels of magnesium -> low levels of parathyroidism -> low levels of calcium
A patient presents with hyperthyroidism but with a decreased uptake of iodine. What explains this?
THe patient is taking exogenous thyroxine. TSH is decreased because the increased thyroxine is playing a role in inhihbiting the relaease of TSH.
What are the 6 functions of prostaglandins?
- Platelet aggregation (PGI2 vs TXA2)
- Uterine contraction
- reduced gastric acid secretion
What type of hormone is Angiotensin?
- It is a protein hormone that:
- decreases bradykinin
- increases BP
- increases [aldosterone]
What are some PGE drugs and what are their functions?
misoprostol, dinosprostone, and alprostadil
- USED FOR:
- peptic ulcers
- induction of labor
- 2nd trimester abortions
- open ductus arteriosus
What is a drug version of prostacyclin and what is its functions?
- pulmonary hypertension
- anticoagulation in hemodialysis
What drug inhibits COX 3 and what effect does this have?
Acetaminophen -> reduces pain and fever
What drugs interfere with iodine uptake or trapping?
What are the acidophil of the adenohypophysis?
Somatotrophs and mammotrophs
What is the best treatment option for a patient that has a deficiency in the hormone that is produced in the supraoptic nucleus?
This is a deficiency in ADH which causes diabetes insipidus. The best treatment is DDAVP because this only has V2 activities without the vasoconstriction of V1
What is the side effect of the drug that inhibits thyroid peroxidase (slow onset b/c of pool) and inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 ->T3?
- S/E = agranulocytosis (dramatic decrease in neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils)
What are the two causes of goiter of the thyroid gland?
Iodine deficiency -> TSH overstimulation
Graves disease -> ab to receptor
What is the MOA of metoclopramide?
D2 antagonist so can lead to hyperprolactinemia
What would a patient with SIADH present with and how do you treat it?
Present with hyponatremia and very small amounts of concentrated urine.
Treatment = Conivaptin (antagonist @ V2 receptors)
How can Hemoglobin A1c levels be falsely high
Longer RBC life span, such as with iron or vitamin B12/folate deficiency
What is the ADA criteria for diabetes?
Fasting > 126mg/dL
2 hour > 200m/dL
What is corpora arenacea?
- Brain sand
- landmark outside fo astroglial cells
- CaPO4 and CaCO3
How does leptin decrease the levels of adiponectin?
By increasing the levels of TNF alpha and IL-6 which results in a decrease in adiponectin production.
Why is testosterone levels decreased in MEN1 syndrome?
3 Ps - pituitary, pancreas, and parathyroid
hyperprolactinemia causes suppression of gonadotropins and decreased testosterone levels
What is the difference between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and central hypothyroidism?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis - high TSH
central hypothyroidism- low TSH
Resection of a goiter lead to transient muscle cramps, paresthesia, Trousseau's sign, and Chvostek's sign. Why ?
The parathyroid glands were injured during the resection of the goiter.
Why would removal of the anterior pituitary result in lowering of blood glucose levels?
Growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone all cause increase in blood glucose.
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