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What are the two main causes that lead to normochromic, normocytic, erythrocytes with numerous schistocytes?
- Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
- 1. disseminated intravascular coagulation
- 2. prosthetic valves
The 9:22 translocation is hallmark for what?
- CML (bcr:aml translocation)
- increase in cells in the granulocytic lineage (PMNs)
When would ESR be decreased?
IN CHF, sickle cell anemia, or polycythemia
What are the 3 layers of blood vessels and what do they contain?
- Tunica intima:
- - single layer of endothelial cells with subendothelial w/ loose CT
- Tunica media:
- - concentric layer of smooth muscle
- Tunica Adventitia:
- - longitudinal elastic fibers, collagen I, and fibroblasts.
If the capillaries do not have a tunica media then what is responsible for the contraction?
What are the 3types of capillaries and where are they located
1. Continous - muscle, CT, nervous, tissue, exocrine glands
2. Fenestrated - kidneys, endocrine, and intestine
3. Sinusoidal - liver and hematopoeitic organs
Describe the formation of atherosclerosis?
damage -> LDL accumulates -> macrophages from media to intima eat LDL = foam cells -> release GF and cytokines -> smooth muscle cap formation-> years later cap calcifed and cracked -> clot formation or embolus formation
What are the 3 integral proteins of RBCs?
- Band 3 proteins (HCO3 transport)
- ABO type
What do agranulocytes give rise to?
Lymphocytes(B cells, T cells, Null cells)
What are the functions of the granulocyte derivatives?
Neutrophils (attack bacteria)
Eosinophils (parasitic infections)
Basophils (release histamine, heparin, serotonin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes)
What are the two components of Heme?
Iron and protoporphyrin
What component of hemoglobin acts as a buffer by binding to H+?
What causes the hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the right?
- T state
- increase BPG
- Increase H +
- increased CO2
- increased temperature
proerythroblast -> basophilic erythroblast -> polychromatophilic erythroblast -> orthochromatophilic erythroblast -> reticulocyte -> erythrocyte
Myeloblast -> promyelocyte -> myelocyte -> metamyelocyte -> band/stab cell -> neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil.
What are the different parts of the bone marrow?
- Yellow = adipocytes
- Red = blood cells
- storma & sinusoids
What is the difference between an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction and a delayed hemolytic reaction?
Acute - ABO mismatch -> fever, dyspnea, oliguria, pain at site
Delayed- not ABO involved -> less severe symptoms
What would the blood smear of a patient with hereditary spherocytosis look like?
They lack the normal concave center.
What is the intiating event of DIC?
Excessive tissue factor release -> unregulated thrombin generation and compensatory plasmin activation.
What is multiple myeloma and how does it affect bone?
A plasma cell proliferation that invades and expands bone marrow of the skull, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, etc.
In the vertebral column leads to pain and compression fractures.
What translocation occurs in the follicular type of small cleaved(B-cell) lymphoma?
The translocation 18:14 -> hybrid Ig heavy chain(14)/bcl-2(18) transcript