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  1. Define "intelligence"
    Knowledge = experience + skills
  2. What is the "nativist view of intelligence"?
    Intelligence or cognitive phenomena are inborn (biological programming)
  3. Who focused on intelligence versus intelligent behavior?
  4. Define "field dependence"
    Learners are more attentive to external references
  5. Define "field interdependence"
    Learners tend to be autonomous in learning
  6. Explain "low-effort syndrome"
    No matter how hard I try I will be held back (playing the victim)
  7. What are the two types of reasoning?
    formal and mathematical (or empirical)
  8. Define "formal reasoning"
    Abstract analysis of premises --> conclusions
  9. Define "empirical reasoning"
    Everyday experiences
  10. Define "sociology"
    Study of societies
  11. What are the two levels of study of sociology?
    Macro and Micro
  12. Define "macro sociology"
    Broad features of society (i.e. social class).  How groups are related to one another.
  13. Define "micro sociology"
    Social interaction, what we do when we get together
  14. Define "culture"
    Encompasses ideals and behaviors that determines who we are
  15. What are three types of status?
    • 1.  Achieved
    • 2.  Ascribed
    • 3.  Master
  16. Define "achieved status"
    Status that is voluntary and accomplished
  17. Define "ascribed status"
    Status that one is born into (e.g. race, sex, ethnicity)
  18. Define "master status"
    Status that can be achieved or ascribed, but cuts across other statuses (e.g. gender [ascribed] or wealth [achieved])
  19. Define "status inconsistency"
    Statuses outside the prescrived norm
  20. What are the six types of society?
    • 1.  Hunting & gathering
    • 2.  Pastoral
    • 3.  Agricultural
    • 4.  Industrial
    • 5.  Post-industrial
    • 6.  Horticultural
  21. Define "hunting & gathering society"
    Society compossed of hunters & gatherers
  22. Define "pastoral society"
    Society compossed of herders.  Found primarily in areas of low rainfall that prevented crop growth.
  23. Define "agricultural society"
    Society founded on advanced agricultural techniques allowing for expanded cultural aspects (e.g. music, art, etc)
  24. Define "industrial society"
    Society with abundant surpluss brought about by industry
  25. Define "post-industrial society"
    Society focuses/comprised on information & change
  26. Define "horticultural society"
    Society characterized by older women, planting, gardening hats & gloves
  27. What are the two shifts in relationships?
    Gemeinschaft (GEM) and Gesellschaft (GES)
  28. Define "gemeinschaft"
    Intimate community / relationships.  Everyone knows everyone else and has personal ties
  29. Define "gesellschaft"
    Impersonal associations
  30. Give a characteristic of Amish communities
    At age 13yr old they stop school and are considered to be adults
  31. Define "dramatergy"
    Life like a soap opera
  32. How many distance zones are there?
  33. What are the four distance zones?
    • 1.  Intimate 0-18 inches
    • 2.  Personal  18 inches - 4 feet
    • 3.  Social  4-12 feet
    • 4.  Public 12 feet and out
  34. What are the two types of role conflictions?
    Role conflict and role strain
  35. Define "role conflict"
    Conflict between roles
  36. Define "role strain"
    Conflict within a role
  37. Define "ethnomethodology"
    Study of how people use common sense understandings to make sense of life
  38. Explain the "Thomas Theorem"
    The definition of the situation.  if the situations is defined as real, then the consequences of the actions are real, too.
  39. Define "group"
    People belonging together and interacting with one another
  40. Deinfe "aggregate"
    People sharing a space, but who don't consider themselves belonging together
  41. Define "category"
    Statistic of people who share similar characteristics
  42. Who focused on the "Small World Phenomenon"
    Stanley Milgram
  43. What is another name for the "Small World Phenomenon"?
    Six degrees of seperation
  44. Define "primary group"
    Base group, provides identity, and feeling of who we are
  45. Define "secondary group"
    Broader categories, more impersonal, larger
  46. Define "voluntary group"
    Made of volunteers witha mutual interest
  47. Define "in-group"
    A group to which you feel loyalty
  48. Define "out-group"
    A group to which you feel antagonism
  49. Define "reference group"
    A group against which you refer to when evaluating yourself
  50. What is the "Peter Principal"?
    That people are promoted to their highest level of incompetence
  51. What is a dyad?
    The smallest possible group of people, made of only 2 people
  52. What is a triad?
    A group of 3 people.
  53. Define "folkways"
    Routine, unspoken conventions of behavior, culturally driven, rarely made into laws (CULTURE)
  54. Define "mores"
    Norms with a strong moral significance, often made into laws (MORALS)
  55. Define "taboos"
    Prohibitions viewed as essential to the well-being of humanity.  Unthinkable, beyond comprehension.  Most always a law, unless it's just too nasty to conceive of needing a law (LAW BREAKER)
  56. Define "deviance"
    Breaking a social rule, or refusing to follow social rules
  57. Define "crime"
    An act that violates a formal code
  58. Define "strain theory"
    Common goals but unequal means of acquiring them
  59. Define "broken window theory"
    Social controls systematically weaken, and minor acts of deviance spiral into sever crime and socal decay
  60. Define "control theory"
    Weigh an outcome, act accordingly for the desired outcome
  61. Define "conflict theory"
    Using class/race/gender to explain crime
  62. Define "labeling theory"
    Deviance is a process.  Labeled by a powerful group
  63. Define "opportunity theory"
    The more opportunities present themselves, the more crimes will be commited
  64. What are two psychological perspectives?
    Relativist and universalist
  65. Define "relativist perspective"
    How you view a psychologoical disorder is relevant to the culture
  66. Define "universalist perspective"
    Viewing of psychological disorders are absolute, regardless of culture
  67. What are two symptom categories in the field of psychology?
    Peripheral and central
  68. Define "peripheral symptoms"
    Culture-specific symptoms of psychology
  69. Define "central symptoms"
    Psychological symptoms recognized in all cultures
  70. Relativist perspective of psychological disorders corelates to what type of symptoms?
  71. Universalist perspective of psychological disorders corelates to whcat type of symptoms?
  72. What is "social class"?
    One's monetary status, or category
  73. What are the five social classes?
    • 1.  Upper
    • 2.  Upper middle
    • 3.  Middle
    • 4.  Working
    • 5.  Lower
  74. Define "functional theory"
    Society is stable and orderly, and requires inequality within it (e.g. leaders and worker bees)
  75. Define "conflict theory"
    Conflict and struggle in society over scarce resources.
  76. What are the three principals of social class?
    • 1.  Money
    • 2.  Occupation
    • 3.  Education
  77. Deffine "feminist theory"
    Defines society thru a gendered prism and emphasizes the patriarchial nature off society.  Women struggling for equality.
  78. What was the significance of the Chicago School?
    It was the first university with a Sociology Department
  79. Define "power elite"
  80. Define "equality of results"
    Equal sharing of income/material rewards regardless of ability/work/initiative
  81. Define "equality of opportunity"
    Equal sharing of results
  82. Define "class consciousness"
    Class members hold similar economic/political interests that are adverse to other classes.
Card Set:
2012-08-08 20:33:47
SSC 101

Chapters 7-12
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