Card Set Information
Knowledge = experience + skills
What is the "nativist view of intelligence"?
Intelligence or cognitive phenomena are inborn (biological programming)
Who focused on intelligence versus intelligent behavior?
Define "field dependence"
Learners are more attentive to external references
Define "field interdependence"
Learners tend to be autonomous in learning
Explain "low-effort syndrome"
No matter how hard I try I will be held back (playing the victim)
What are the two types of reasoning?
formal and mathematical (or empirical)
Define "formal reasoning"
Abstract analysis of premises --> conclusions
Define "empirical reasoning"
Study of societies
What are the two levels of study of sociology?
Macro and Micro
Define "macro sociology"
Broad features of society (i.e. social class). How groups are related to one another.
Define "micro sociology"
Social interaction, what we do when we get together
Encompasses ideals and behaviors that determines who we are
What are three types of status?
Define "achieved status"
Status that is voluntary and accomplished
Define "ascribed status"
Status that one is born into (e.g. race, sex, ethnicity)
Define "master status"
Status that can be achieved or ascribed, but cuts across other statuses (e.g. gender [ascribed] or wealth [achieved])
Define "status inconsistency"
Statuses outside the prescrived norm
What are the six types of society?
1. Hunting & gathering
Define "hunting & gathering society"
Society compossed of hunters & gatherers
Define "pastoral society"
Society compossed of herders. Found primarily in areas of low rainfall that prevented crop growth.
Define "agricultural society"
Society founded on advanced agricultural techniques allowing for expanded cultural aspects (e.g. music, art, etc)
Define "industrial society"
Society with abundant surpluss brought about by industry
Define "post-industrial society"
Society focuses/comprised on information & change
Define "horticultural society"
Society characterized by older women, planting, gardening hats & gloves
What are the two shifts in relationships?
Gemeinschaft (GEM) and Gesellschaft (GES)
Intimate community / relationships. Everyone knows everyone else and has personal ties
Give a characteristic of Amish communities
At age 13yr old they stop school and are considered to be adults
Life like a soap opera
How many distance zones are there?
What are the four distance zones?
1. Intimate 0-18 inches
2. Personal 18 inches - 4 feet
3. Social 4-12 feet
4. Public 12 feet and out
What are the two types of role conflictions?
Role conflict and role strain
Define "role conflict"
Conflict between roles
Define "role strain"
Conflict within a role
Study of how people use common sense understandings to make sense of life
Explain the "Thomas Theorem"
The definition of the situation. if the situations is defined as real, then the consequences of the actions are real, too.
People belonging together and interacting with one another
People sharing a space, but who don't consider themselves belonging together
Statistic of people who share similar characteristics
Who focused on the "Small World Phenomenon"
What is another name for the "Small World Phenomenon"?
Six degrees of seperation
Define "primary group"
Base group, provides identity, and feeling of who we are
Define "secondary group"
Broader categories, more impersonal, larger
Define "voluntary group"
Made of volunteers witha mutual interest
A group to which you feel loyalty
A group to which you feel antagonism
Define "reference group"
A group against which you refer to when evaluating yourself
What is the "Peter Principal"?
That people are promoted to their highest level of incompetence
What is a dyad?
The smallest possible group of people, made of only 2 people
What is a triad?
A group of 3 people.
Routine, unspoken conventions of behavior, culturally driven, rarely made into laws (CULTURE)
Norms with a strong moral significance, often made into laws (MORALS)
Prohibitions viewed as essential to the well-being of humanity. Unthinkable, beyond comprehension. Most always a law, unless it's just too nasty to conceive of needing a law (LAW BREAKER)
Breaking a social rule, or refusing to follow social rules
An act that violates a formal code
Define "strain theory"
Common goals but unequal means of acquiring them
Define "broken window theory"
Social controls systematically weaken, and minor acts of deviance spiral into sever crime and socal decay
Define "control theory"
Weigh an outcome, act accordingly for the desired outcome
Define "conflict theory"
Using class/race/gender to explain crime
Define "labeling theory"
Deviance is a process. Labeled by a powerful group
Define "opportunity theory"
The more opportunities present themselves, the more crimes will be commited
What are two psychological perspectives?
Relativist and universalist
Define "relativist perspective"
How you view a psychologoical disorder is relevant to the culture
Define "universalist perspective"
Viewing of psychological disorders are absolute, regardless of culture
What are two symptom categories in the field of psychology?
Peripheral and central
Define "peripheral symptoms"
Culture-specific symptoms of psychology
Define "central symptoms"
Psychological symptoms recognized in all cultures
Relativist perspective of psychological disorders corelates to what type of symptoms?
Universalist perspective of psychological disorders corelates to whcat type of symptoms?
What is "social class"?
One's monetary status, or category
What are the five social classes?
2. Upper middle
Define "functional theory"
Society is stable and orderly, and requires inequality within it (e.g. leaders and worker bees)
Define "conflict theory"
Conflict and struggle in society over scarce resources.
What are the three principals of social class?
Deffine "feminist theory"
Defines society thru a gendered prism and emphasizes the patriarchial nature off society. Women struggling for equality.
What was the significance of the Chicago School?
It was the first university with a Sociology Department
Define "power elite"
Define "equality of results"
Equal sharing of income/material rewards regardless of ability/work/initiative
Define "equality of opportunity"
Equal sharing of results
Define "class consciousness"
Class members hold similar economic/political interests that are adverse to other classes.