Biology final

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  1. Homozygous recessive
    2 recessive alleles (Purebred) rr
  2. Translocation
    Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
  3. Hemophilia
    • Bleeding disorder
    • X-Y
    • X-X-
  4. Dominant traits
    Traits that express themselves (will show up)
  5. DNA sequencing
    • Polymerase chain reaction
    • makes millions of copies of DNA sequences
  6. Genetic engineering of bacteria
    Insert human DNA into bacteria (example- human insulin)
  7. Incomplete dominance
    • Heterozygous "blending" of dominant and recessive traits.
    • Example: RR rr

    •     R    R
    • r  Rr   Rr

    r  Rr   Rr
  8. Double helix model
    (Watson & Crick) nucleotides form rungs of ladder with phosphate & ribosome sides.
  9. Genes
    Coed for certaom traots
  10. Alleles
    same genes with different traits
  11. Pedigree
    Genetic relationship in families
  12. Incorrect chromosome number
    Any number other than 46 (in humans)
  13. Codominance
    In heterozygous, both traits are expressed
  14. Principle of dominance
    Dominant traits will express themselves
  15. Autosomal recessive inheritance
    must have both recessive alleles
  16. sex-linked disorders
    • XX     Normal female
    • X-X    Female carrier
    • X-X-   Afflicted female

    • X-Y    Afflicted male
    • XY     Normal male
  17. Inheritance
    Traits carried on chromosomes
  18. Genotype
    is a gene code
  19. Deletions
    Part of a chromosome is missing
  20. Phenotype
    How genotype espresses itself (what it looks like)
  21. Recombination in nature
    Mutations crossing over selective breeding
  22. Jacobs syndrome
  23. sex linked human inheritance
    Traits are carried on the X chromosome
  24. Inversions
    Part of the chromosome is reversed
  25. DNA replication
    Bases need to form a complimentary strand. DNA polymerase splits the DNA into two separate strands of base pairs
  26. Albinism
  27. Heterozygous
    • one dominant and on recessive allele
    • Rr
    • Hybrid
  28. Plastids
    DNA bearing units (Rings) that lie outside of the bacterial chromosomes used to incorporate DNA sequences
  29. Coding capacity
    Genes carry codes that produce traits in the organism
  30. Chargaff's rule
    • A-T
    • T-A
    • G-C
    • C-G
  31. Mutations
    alteration of the chromosome bases
  32. Disease
    Serious disorders or abnormalities caused by genes
  33. Gametes
    Separation of alleles. Occurs during meiosis
  34. Disjunction abnormalities
    Extra or to few. Occurs in meiosis. Can result in some degree of mental retardation and increase risk of diseases and defects.
  35. Meta or super female
  36. Sex chromosomes
    • XX Female
    • XY Male
  37. DNA stands for
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  38. Turners syndrome
  39. Environmental influance on gene expression
    • Sun exposure
    • exposure to cold
  40. Colorblindness
    X-Y or X-X-
  41. Homozygous dominant
    • 2 dominant alleles
    • RR
    • pure bred
  42. Recessive traits
    only show up if both recessive alleles are present
  43. Heterotrophs
    Consummers (Can't make their own food)
  44. Ecological pyramids
    • Producers at the base.
    • Most energy goes to the producers and energuy is lost through the food chain
    • Biomass- total amount of living material
  45. Systems
    Group of organs performing specific functions
  46. Organisms
    living things
  47. Species
    Interbreeding group of organisms
  48. Resource partitioning
    Live in a specific area and eat specific organisms
  49. Logistic growth
    • S-Shaped
    • Population stays fairly constant
  50. environmental resistance
    factors that can limit population growth
  51. Smog
    particles suspended in the air
  52. Nitches
    • Roles! Producers
    •           Consumers
    •           Decomposers
  53. Experimental variable
    One condition is changed
  54. Biomes
    • Terrestrial-Land
    • Tundra- Permafrost
    • Taiga- Coniferous forest
    • Temperate forest- deciduous forest maple and oaks
    • Deserts- little rain with extreme temps
  55. Cellular respiration
    Process where food is converted into energy
  56. Biodiversity
    A variety of living organisms on the planet including their genes, ecosystems, and community interactions.
  57. Oligotrophic
    • Clear lakes & streams
    • Spring fed
    • little polution
    • constant water flow
  58. Keystone species
    Species that entirecommunities depend on
  59. Malthusians prediction
    As the population increases, so do the problems. Food supply will run out for humans.
  60. Co-evolution
    Depend on one another
  61. Other feeding techniques
    • Liquid feeders- blood and nectar
    • waste feeders- scavengers eat what they don't kill
  62. Renewable energy
    • Wind
    • Dams
    • solar
    • trees
    • Garbage burning
    • cuclear fusion
  63. Camouflage
    Blending in to avoid detection
  64. Data
    Numberical observations
  65. Scientific method
    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Experiment
    • Conclusion
  66. K species
    Density dependent. Population size limited by carring capacity. Late loss
  67. R Species
    Opportunistic species. Population size limited by reproductive rate. Has an early loss.
  68. Parasitism
    • More prey- more parasites
    • They don't kill their prey
  69. Population
    A group of the same species in a given area.
  70. Saprophytes
    Nongreen plants that feed on dead and decaying materials
  71. Food chain 10% rule
    • Producers 1000
    • 1st          100
    • 2nd          10
    • 3rd          .1
  72. Mimicry
    Looks similar to another species which is usually poisonous so that it won't be preyed on.
  73. Succession
    predictable change within a community over time. Takes 100s of years
  74. Experimental group
    only the variable being tested is changed
  75. Mutualism
    both organisms benefit from the relationship
  76. double blind study
    Neither the test subject or the administraters know who is the experimental or control gourp
  77. Biodiversity
    How many different species there are
  78. Predator
    Kills and eats its prey
  79. Global warming
    leads to habitat destruction. Rapid pace of golbal warming taxes abilities of species to adapt to the changing conditions through natural selection.
  80. Habitat
    Environment an organism lives in
  81. Omnivores
    eats plants and meat
  82. Carrying capacity
    • K
    • Maximum population density that an area can support
  83. Homeostasis
    • ability to maintain a constant internal state.
    • Endotherms- Warm blooded
    • Ectotherms- Cold blooded
  84. Ecology
    The study of the environment
  85. Lichen
    Algae and fungue together. One makes food through sunlight the other protects and anchers.
  86. Kelp forests
    Giant algae that grows a foot a day
  87. Controlled group
    All variables not being tested remain constant
  88. Diversity
    the more diverse the community the more there is to feed off of.
  89. Food to energy equation
  90. Herbivores
    Eat plants. Primary consumers, leaf eaters, seed, fruit and berry eaters.
  91. Ozone layer
    Layer of O3 filters out UV rays.
  92. Acid Rain
    • pH of 3.5-5.5 is NORMAL
    • pH of acid rain is 6-7
    • Created by nurning of fossil fuels when sulfur dioxide combines with water it creates sulfuric acid. Nitrous oxide+H2O creates nitric acid
  93. Most common Elements
    • C Carbon
    • H Hydrogen
    • O Oxyger
    • N Nitrogen
  94. Biological magnification
    Pesticide amounts increase through a food chain increase in the parts per millions. Pesticides are stored in fat.
  95. Commensalism
    one benefits and one is unaffected.
  96. Autotrophs
    Producers. Plants. Photosynthetic.
  97. Ecological dominance
    certain species are more common
  98. Second succession
    Quicker than primary succession. Usually takes 10s of years rather than 100s
  99. Predation
    Feeds on and kills its prey
  100. Community
    Group of populations (living things) in a given area.
  101. Nonidigenous species
    Species not native to the territory.
  102. Nitrogen fixation
    • N2-> Nitrates.
    • Legumes have nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots.
  103. Non-renewable energy
    • Fossil fuels- Produce CO CO2 SO2 NO2 and particulates
    • Nuclear power- fission radioactive wastes
  104. Evolution
    Bacteria becomes more resistant because change occurs for the organism to survive
  105. Abiotic factors
    • Nonliving factors
    • Air
    • Sun light
    • Temp
    • Water
  106. Molecules
    2 or more atoms combined
  107. Atoms
    Smallest particle of matter
  108. Organelles
    small functional parts of a cell (Ribosomes)
  109. Ecosystem
    interaction of a community and its surroundings
  110. Cell
    Basic unit of live
  111. Tissue
    group of similar cells
  112. Organs
    group of similar tissues that perform a certain function
  113. Biosphere
    living portion of earth. Contains biomes (Major climate zones)
  114. Ammonification
    • dead decaying organisms, feces, and urine.
    • Protien is broken by bacteria and creates ammonia.
  115. Estuaries
    brackish water high in nutrients. Salt and fresh waters.
  116. Nitrification
    Nitrifying bacteria. Ammonia (NH4) turns to Nitrates (NO3)
  117. Desity independent factors
    • Environmental changes
    • Natural disasters
  118. Dentrification
    Denitrifying bacteria nitrates (N2)
  119. Eutrophic
    increased humus, vegetation, sewage, high pollution
  120. Acid rain
    oxidized nitrogen and sulfur relesed by burning fossil fuels leads to acid rains.
  121. Trophic cascade
    Keystone species affects all other populations within the ecosystem
  122. Catabolic
    • Larger - - > Smaller
    • C12H22O11+H2O---> C6H12O6+C6H12O6
  123. Ionic bonds
    Elements lose or gain electrons and become ions
  124. ~
    High energy bonds
  125. Energy from sunlight
    • Chemical energy
    • Wave Lengths
    • Longest is red
    • Shortest is violet
  126. Calories & Kilocalories
    amount of heat needed to raise 1000 grams of water to 1 degree celsius
  127. ATP/ADP cycle
    • A-P~P~P-> last bond breaks
    • A-P~P  ~P  drains of energy
    • -P
    • A-P~P (ADP)
    • Recharge ~P by adding food energy
    • Reconnect with A-P~P
    • A-P~P~P
  128. Triglyceride
    3 fatter acids, glycerol, and 3 water molecules
  129. Grana
    Stacks of membranes that absorb light energy
  130. Atomic # for H
  131. Atomic # for N
  132. Atomic # for O
  133. Red orange
  134. Base units of lipids
    Fatty acids
  135. Atomic # for C
  136. Glycolysis
    Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver.
  137. Joining of amino acids forms
    a peptyde bond
  138. Light dependent reactions
  139. 3 fatty acids + glycerol
  140. Fats in a ring
  141. Specific heat
    Water has a high specific heat, meaning it takes a lot of energy to change water temp.
  142. Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    cellular respiration and phosynthesis to produce ATP
  143. Enzymes
    Organic catalysts speed up breaking down of food. Ends is ASE
  144. Anarobic
    without O2, glycolysis, fermentation
  145. Isotopes
    single element the nuclei contains the same # of protons but a different # of neutrons.
  146. Lipids
    Glycerold + 3 fatty acids
  147. =
    double bond
  148. Sugars, starches and cellulose are
  149. -
    single bond
  150. Stroma
    • Fluid
    • Light independent reactions
  151. Characteristics of enzymes
    • End in "ase"
    • are proteins
    • are never used up
    • never change chemically
    • are specific
  152. Solubility
    How well some thing dissolves
  153. Most common solvent
  154. Proteins are made up of
    Amino acids
  155. When 3 or more sugars are combined it makes a
  156. When glucose combines with fructose what is formed?
  157. Maltase and lactase break down
  158. Active site
    where enzymes fit into a substance
  159. Activation Energy
    Energy to start a reaction. Potential to kinetic
  160. Light dependent reactions
  161. Catalyst
    Speeds up a reaction and lowers the activation energy required to start a reaction
  162. Nucleic acids
    • C H O N P
    • DNA RNA
    • Nucleotides/ ribose/ phosphates
  163. Carbohydrates
    • Sugars and starches used for evergy containing 4 calories per gram. Contains CHO.
    • Monosaccharides and disaccharides
  164. Examples of starches
    Glycogen & Cellulose
  165. Examples of Proteins
    • Albumin
    • Keratin
    • Collagen
  166. Carboxyl
    • COOH
    • Lipids and protiens
  167. Buffers
    • Baking soda NaOH
    • Neutralize excess acid to create pH7
  168. Neutral pH
    • pH of 7
    • H+ = OH
    • water
    • blood
    • saliva
  169. Proteins are used for
    growth, maintenance and repair
  170. Peptide
    Joining of amino acids
  171. subatomic particles
    • Protons in cucleus (+)
    • Neutrons in nucleus
    • Electrons in orbitals energy levels

    • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons
    • 2nd can hold 8
    • 3rd can hold 8-18
  172. Chemical energy
    stored in chemicals... duh
  173. Phosphates
    • PO4 In nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
  174. Polysaccharides
    • Many sugars.
    • Starch in breads, potatos, and grains.
    • Glycogen is stored glucose in muscles and liver
    • cellulose in cell walls
    • test for it using iodine
  175. Amino acid
    Any chemical compound containing a NH2 unit
  176. Lipids
    • CHO
    • 9 calories per gram
    • fats, waxes and oils
    • used for energy storage, isulation and padding
    • test using Sudan3
  177. H2O
  178. monosaccharides
    CO2 C6H12O6
  179. Hydrochloric acid
  180. Disaccharide
  181. Endergonic
    Absorb energy and gets cooler
  182. Calvin cycle
    • CO2->ATP
    • Light independent
    • produces sugar
  183. Isomer
    Same formula, different arrangment
  184. Substrate
    Substance being broken down
  185. Chloroplast
    Contains chlorophyll
  186. Kinetic energy
    energy of motion
  187. Carboxyl
    any chemical compound containing a COOH unit
  188. lipids (in plants)
    are stored in plants unsaterated oils
  189. Polymer
    repeating monomers (Chains)
  190. Example of proteins
    • Lysine
    • alanine
    • argenine
  191. Acids
    • pH 1-6 H+ ions (Hydrogen ions)
    • sour taste
    • urine 5.5
    • sweat 5.5
    • soda 3.5
    • gastric juice 2.0
  192. Amino
    NH3 NH2 (In proteins)
  193. Atomic number
    Number of protons
  194. Anabolic reaction
    • From smaller to bigger
    • C6H12O6+C6H12O6 -> C12H22O11+H2O
  195. Sucrose is a
  196. H:O = 2:1
  197. Lipase
    breaks down fat
  198. Starches are made from
    • Polysaccharides
    • CHO
  199. Test for starches with
  200. Test for proteins with
  201. Example of lipids
    • Fats
    • waxes
    • oils
    • adipose
  202. Test for lipids with
    • Sudan 3
    • Brown paper
  203. Atomic mass
    Protons + neutrons
  204. Organic
    Contains carbon
  205. Isotophers
    different # of nutrons
  206. Elements in humans
    • Carbon
    • oxygen
    • sodium
    • magnasium
    • calium
    • iron
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
    • sulfer
    • potassium
    • phosphorus
    • chlorine
  207. Disaccharides
    Double sugars
  208. Cellulost in plants
    Give plants support and strength becauseglucose units bond as polymers
  209. Cohesion tension
    water is attracted to water
  210. Capillary action
    • surface tension attraction tension
    • water to water
  211. Lipids are used for
    • energy storage
    • insulation
    • padding
  212. Protein calories
  213. Cell membranes are made from
  214. Chlorophyll
    green pigment traps light
  215. Orange/Yellow
  216. Exergonic
    release of energy, heat, gas, bubbles
  217. Photosynthesis equation
  218. Aerobic
    • with O2
    • Kreb's
    • electron transport
  219. Potential energy
    stored energy
  220. Covalent bonds
    Shared electrons
  221. Bases
    • Alkaline
    • pH 8-14
    • OH-ions
    • bitter taste
    • bile 8
    • ammonia 11.5
    • bleach 12.5
    • pancreation juice 8

Card Set Information

Biology final
2012-08-09 16:37:38
Deb lipschultz biology comprehensive final

Biology 1010 comprehensive final
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