Card Set Information
Deb lipschultz biology comprehensive final
Biology 1010 comprehensive final
2 recessive alleles (Purebred) rr
Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
Traits that express themselves (will show up)
Polymerase chain reaction
makes millions of copies of DNA sequences
Genetic engineering of bacteria
Insert human DNA into bacteria (example- human insulin)
Heterozygous "blending" of dominant and recessive traits.
: RR rr
r Rr Rr
r Rr Rr
Double helix model
(Watson & Crick) nucleotides form rungs of ladder with phosphate & ribosome sides.
Coed for certaom traots
same genes with different traits
Genetic relationship in families
Incorrect chromosome number
Any number other than 46 (in humans)
In heterozygous, both traits are expressed
Principle of dominance
Dominant traits will express themselves
Autosomal recessive inheritance
must have both recessive alleles
XX Normal female
X-X Female carrier
X-X- Afflicted female
X-Y Afflicted male
XY Normal male
Traits carried on chromosomes
is a gene code
Part of a chromosome is missing
How genotype espresses itself (what it looks like)
Recombination in nature
Mutations crossing over selective breeding
sex linked human inheritance
Traits are carried on the X chromosome
Part of the chromosome is reversed
Bases need to form a complimentary strand. DNA polymerase splits the DNA into two separate strands of base pairs
one dominant and on recessive allele
DNA bearing units (Rings) that lie outside of the bacterial chromosomes used to incorporate DNA sequences
Genes carry codes that produce traits in the organism
alteration of the chromosome bases
Serious disorders or abnormalities caused by genes
Separation of alleles. Occurs during meiosis
Extra or to few. Occurs in meiosis. Can result in some degree of mental retardation and increase risk of diseases and defects.
Meta or super female
DNA stands for
Environmental influance on gene expression
exposure to cold
X-Y or X-X-
2 dominant alleles
only show up if both recessive alleles are present
Consummers (Can't make their own food)
Producers at the base.
Most energy goes to the producers and energuy is lost through the food chain
Biomass- total amount of living material
Group of organs performing specific functions
Interbreeding group of organisms
Live in a specific area and eat specific organisms
Population stays fairly constant
factors that can limit population growth
particles suspended in the air
One condition is changed
Taiga- Coniferous forest
Temperate forest- deciduous forest maple and oaks
Deserts- little rain with extreme temps
Process where food is converted into energy
A variety of living organisms on the planet including their genes, ecosystems, and community interactions.
Clear lakes & streams
constant water flow
Species that entirecommunities depend on
As the population increases, so do the problems. Food supply will run out for humans.
Depend on one another
Other feeding techniques
Liquid feeders- blood and nectar
waste feeders- scavengers eat what they don't kill
Blending in to avoid detection
Density dependent. Population size limited by carring capacity. Late loss
Opportunistic species. Population size limited by reproductive rate. Has an early loss.
More prey- more parasites
They don't kill their prey
A group of the same species in a given area.
Nongreen plants that feed on dead and decaying materials
Food chain 10% rule
Looks similar to another species which is usually poisonous so that it won't be preyed on.
predictable change within a community over time. Takes 100s of years
only the variable being tested is changed
both organisms benefit from the relationship
double blind study
Neither the test subject or the administraters know who is the experimental or control gourp
How many different species there are
Kills and eats its prey
leads to habitat destruction. Rapid pace of golbal warming taxes abilities of species to adapt to the changing conditions through natural selection.
Environment an organism lives in
eats plants and meat
Maximum population density that an area can support
ability to maintain a constant internal state.
Endotherms- Warm blooded
Ectotherms- Cold blooded
The study of the environment
Algae and fungue together. One makes food through sunlight the other protects and anchers.
Giant algae that grows a foot a day
All variables not being tested remain constant
the more diverse the community the more there is to feed off of.
Food to energy equation
Eat plants. Primary consumers, leaf eaters, seed, fruit and berry eaters.
Layer of O3 filters out UV rays.
pH of 3.5-5.5 is NORMAL
pH of acid rain is 6-7
Created by nurning of fossil fuels when sulfur dioxide combines with water it creates sulfuric acid. Nitrous oxide+H2O creates nitric acid
Most common Elements
Pesticide amounts increase through a food chain increase in the parts per millions. Pesticides are stored in fat.
one benefits and one is unaffected.
Producers. Plants. Photosynthetic.
certain species are more common
Quicker than primary succession. Usually takes 10s of years rather than 100s
Feeds on and kills its prey
Group of populations (living things) in a given area.
Species not native to the territory.
Legumes have nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots.
Fossil fuels- Produce CO CO2 SO2 NO2 and particulates
Nuclear power- fission radioactive wastes
Bacteria becomes more resistant because change occurs for the organism to survive
2 or more atoms combined
Smallest particle of matter
small functional parts of a cell (Ribosomes)
interaction of a community and its surroundings
Basic unit of live
group of similar cells
group of similar tissues that perform a certain function
living portion of earth. Contains biomes (Major climate zones)
dead decaying organisms, feces, and urine.
Protien is broken by bacteria and creates ammonia.
brackish water high in nutrients. Salt and fresh waters.
Nitrifying bacteria. Ammonia (NH4) turns to Nitrates (NO3)
Desity independent factors
Denitrifying bacteria nitrates (N2)
increased humus, vegetation, sewage, high pollution
oxidized nitrogen and sulfur relesed by burning fossil fuels leads to acid rains.
Keystone species affects all other populations within the ecosystem
Larger - - > Smaller
Elements lose or gain electrons and become ions
High energy bonds
Energy from sunlight
Longest is red
Shortest is violet
Calories & Kilocalories
amount of heat needed to raise 1000 grams of water to 1 degree celsius
A-P~P~P-> last bond breaks
A-P~P ~P drains of energy
Recharge ~P by adding food energy
Reconnect with A-P~P
3 fatter acids, glycerol, and 3 water molecules
Stacks of membranes that absorb light energy
Atomic # for H
Atomic # for N
Atomic # for O
Base units of lipids
Atomic # for C
Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver.
Joining of amino acids forms
a peptyde bond
Light dependent reactions
3 fatty acids + glycerol
Fats in a ring
Water has a high specific heat, meaning it takes a lot of energy to change water temp.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
cellular respiration and phosynthesis to produce ATP
Organic catalysts speed up breaking down of food. Ends is ASE
without O2, glycolysis, fermentation
single element the nuclei contains the same # of protons but a different # of neutrons.
Glycerold + 3 fatty acids
Sugars, starches and cellulose are
Light independent reactions
Characteristics of enzymes
End in "ase"
are never used up
never change chemically
How well some thing dissolves
Most common solvent
Proteins are made up of
When 3 or more sugars are combined it makes a
When glucose combines with fructose what is formed?
Maltase and lactase break down
where enzymes fit into a substance
Energy to start a reaction. Potential to kinetic
Light dependent reactions
Speeds up a reaction and lowers the activation energy required to start a reaction
C H O N P
Nucleotides/ ribose/ phosphates
Sugars and starches used for evergy containing 4 calories per gram. Contains CHO.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides
Examples of starches
Glycogen & Cellulose
Examples of Proteins
Lipids and protiens
Baking soda NaOH
Neutralize excess acid to create pH7
pH of 7
H+ = OH
Proteins are used for
growth, maintenance and repair
Joining of amino acids
Protons in cucleus (+)
Neutrons in nucleus
Electrons in orbitals energy levels
1st shell can hold 2 electrons
2nd can hold 8
3rd can hold 8-18
stored in chemicals... duh
PO4 In nucleic acids
Starch in breads, potatos, and grains.
Glycogen is stored glucose in muscles and liver
cellulose in cell walls
test for it using iodine
Any chemical compound containing a NH2 unit
9 calories per gram
fats, waxes and oils
used for energy storage, isulation and padding
test using Sudan3
Absorb energy and gets cooler
Same formula, different arrangment
Substance being broken down
energy of motion
any chemical compound containing a COOH unit
lipids (in plants)
are stored in plants unsaterated oils
repeating monomers (Chains)
Example of proteins
pH 1-6 H+ ions (Hydrogen ions)
gastric juice 2.0
NH3 NH2 (In proteins)
Number of protons
From smaller to bigger
C6H12O6+C6H12O6 -> C12H22O11+H2O
Sucrose is a
H:O = 2:1
breaks down fat
Starches are made from
Test for starches with
Test for proteins with
Example of lipids
Test for lipids with
Protons + neutrons
different # of nutrons
Elements in humans
Cellulost in plants
Give plants support and strength becauseglucose units bond as polymers
water is attracted to water
surface tension attraction tension
water to water
Lipids are used for
Cell membranes are made from
green pigment traps light
release of energy, heat, gas, bubbles
pancreation juice 8