Personal Training Theory
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What is structured exercise?
Physical activity performed in a planned manner for enhancing health and/or fitness
HEALTH RELATED COMPONENTS OF FITNESS? 5 pts
- 1.Cardiovascular Endurance
- 2.Muscular Strength
- 3. Muscular Endurance
- 4. Flexibility
- 5. Body Composition
What are Skill-Related Components of Fitness? 6 pts
- 1. Reaction Time
- 2. Speed
- 3. Agility
- 4. Balance
- 5. Power
- 6. Hand/eye or Foot/eye Coordination
What is WELLNESS?
The state or condition of being in good physical and mental health.
What does PHYSICALLY FIT mean?
to be in a state of health and well-being
What are HEALTH RISK FACTORS?
associated with ill health, disability, disease or death
What is HOLISTIC health?
all aspects of people's needs, psychological, physical and social should be taken into account and seen as a whole.
What is HYPOKINESIS?
Decreased, diminished, or slow movements
What is PHYSICAL FITNESS?
is a level of health in wich you have muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, and lean body composition
What are the PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING? (FITT)
plus 6 sport specific
What are the BENEFITS OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE? 5 pts
- Live longer
- More energy
- More productive
- Look and feel better
- Disease prevention
What is a HEART DISEASE RISK PROFILE SCORE consist of?
- cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- risk assessment
What consists in lifestyle score?
What is HUMAN ANATOMY?
The study and structure of the human body
What is EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY? 3 pts
- The study of how the body responds to physical activity.
- 1. Cardiovascular System
- 2. Endorcine System
- 3. Musculoskeletal System
What is the ANATOMICAL REFERENCE POSITION?
- provides a reference point for describing the structures of the human body.
- In this position, the body is standing erect with good posture and the face is looking directly forward.
- The arms are down at the sides with the palms turned forward and thumbs pointing away from the body.
What are the ANATOMICAL PLANES AND SECTIONS? 4 pts
- 1.Sagittal plane- Divides the body into left and right sides
- 2.Midsagittal plane- Divides body into equal right and left sides
- 3. Frontal plane/ coronal plane- Divides body into front and back
- 4.Transverse plane/Horizontal plane- Divides body into upper and lower parts
What are the ANATOMICAL DIRECTIONAL TERMS? 10 pts
- 1. Ventral- Toward the bottom, towards the belly
- 2. Anterior-In front of, front
- 3.Distal- Away from, farther from the origin
- 4. Dorsal- Near the upper surface, towards the back
- 5.Inferior- Below, under
- 6.Lateral- Toward the side, away from the midline
- 7.Posterior- towards the back dorsal
- 8. Proximal- Near, closer to the origin
- 9.Superior-Above, over
- 10.Medial- Toward the midline, middle, away from the side
What is Axial Skeleton?
- consists of the 80 bones along the central axis of the human body.
- Flat bones house the brain, spinal cord, and other vital organs.
What is the Appendicular Skeleton?
- The appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones in the human body.
- Upper and Lower Limbs
What types of bones are there in the body? give example of each 5pts
- long bones- femur, humerous, metacarpals etc
- short bones- carpals, tarsals
- flat bones- scapula, sternum, cranium, pelvis, ribs
- irregular bones -vertibrae, sacrum, madible
- sesmoid bones- patella
What are the major bones of the body? 10 pts
- the cranium (skull),
- mandible (lower jaw),
- vertebral column (spine),
- sternum (breast bone),
- pelvic girdle (pelvis),
- patella (knee cap),
- fibulae (upper part of lower arm)
- phalanges (fingers and toes)
What is Synovial Joint anatomy?
- is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body
- synovial joints achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones.
Types of Synovial Joints? 6 pts
- 1. Gliding Joints- These joints allow only gliding or sliding movements ( Wrist Carpals)
- 2.Hinge Joints- These joints act as a door hinge does, allowing flexion and extension in just one plane (Elbow)
- 3. Pivot Joint- One bone rotates about another
- 4.Condyloid Joint- two bones fit together with an odd shape (Wrist Joint)
- 5. Saddle Joint- resemble a saddle, permit the same movements as the condyloid joints (Thumb joint)
- 6. Ball and socket joint- These allow for all movements except gliding ( Shoulder, Hips)
What are ligaments?
A short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
What are tendons?
A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
What is Bursae?
is a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and muscles around a joint.
What is flexion?
position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing
What is extension?
occurs in the sagittal plane when the body is in the anatomical position.
What is Hyperextension?
is the movement of joints, tendons, or muscles beyond their normal limit, PAST extension.
What is DORSI FLEXION?
The angle decreasing from the foot and the leg
What is PLANTAR FLEXION?
increases the approximate 90 degree angle between the front part of the foot and the shin. Ex standing on tippy toes
What is ABDUCTION?
Moving a body part away from the body.- Legs and arms
What is ADDUCTION?
Moving a body part back into the medial/center of the body. Bringing arms back down to sides
What is CIRCUMDUCTION?
a circular movement of a limb or eye.
What is MEDIAL ROTATION?
rotation towards the center of the body..
What is LATERAL ROTATION?
rotation away from the center of the body
What is SUPINATION?
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward. Cupping
What is PRONATION?
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
What is Inversion?
movement of the sole towards the median plane (as when an ankle is twisted).
What is Eversion?
the movement of the sole of the foot away from the median plane.
What is Protraction?
Anterior movement of the arms at the shoulders.
What is Retraction?
Posterior movement of the arms at the shoulders.
What is ELEVATION?
Movement in a superior direction. The upper muscle fibers of the trapezius aid in elevating the apex of the shoulder.
What is Depression?
Movement in an inferior direction, the opposite of elevation. Opposite to the upper fibers, the lower half of the trapezius aids in depressing the apex of the shoulder.
What is a INTERVERTEBRAL JOINT?
joint in the spine that allows the spine to. There are multiple
What is VERTEBROCOSTAL JOINT?
A synovial, gliding joint between a vertebra and rib
What is STERNECOSTAL JOINT?
capsules surround the joints between the cartilages of the true ribs and the sternum;
What is STERNOCLAVICULAR JOINT?
The sternoclavicular articulation is a synovial saddle joint composed of two portions separated by an articular disc.
What is ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT?
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder. It is the junction between the acromion (part of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder) and the clavicle.
What is GLENO-HUMERAL JOINT?
or shoulder joint, is a multiaxial synovial ball and socket joint and involves articulation between the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the head of the humerus The human shoulder is the most moving joint in the body.
What is HUMERO-ULNAR JOINT?
part of the elbow-joint or the Olecron Joint, between the ulna and humerus bones is the simple hinge-joint, which allows for movements of flexion, extension and circumduction
What is RADIO-ULNAR JOINT?
The forearm is the structure and distal region of the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist.
What is RADIO-CARPAL JOINT?
or wrist joint is an ellipsoid joint formed by the radius and the articular disc proximally and the proximal row of carpal bones distally
What is INTERCARPAL JOINT?
can be subdivided into three sets of articulations: Those of the proximal row of carpal bones, those of the distal row of carpal bones, and those of the two rows with each other.
What is SACROILIAC JOINT?
the joint in the bony pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side.
What is the Pubic Symphysis Joint?
midline cartilaginous joint (secondary cartilaginous) uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones.
What is the HIP JOINT?
The ball-and-socket joint connecting a leg to the trunk of the body, in which the head of the thigh bone fits into the socket of the ilium.
What is the KNEE JOINT?
hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella.
What is the TIBIOFIBULAR (PROXIMAL) JOINT?
a synovial joint that functions in dissipating lower leg torsional stresses and lateral tibial bending moments and in transmitting axial loads in weight-bearing
What is TIBIOFIBULAR (DISTAL) JOINT?
is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the distal end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia.
What is the ANKLE JOINT?
a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus.
What are THREE CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKELETAL JOINTS AND AN EXAMPLE OF EACH?
- There are three main types of joints;
- Fibrous (immoveable)- Teeth
- Cartilagenous (partially moveable)-Vertebrae and spine
- Synovial (freely moveable) joint-elbow, neck knee. ETC
SIX TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS? 6pts
- Hinge- Elbow + Knee
- Pivot- Neck
- Ball and Socket- Hip and Shoulder
- Saddle- Thumb
- Condyloid- Wrist
- Gliding- intercarpal movements.
What is DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HIP BONE AND THE HIP JOINT?
Hip bone-three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone which forms part of the hip region.
Hip Joint-is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures
What are the 5 FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLE TISSUE?
- 1. Producing body movements,Movement of body or parts by skeletal muscle
- 2. Stabilizing body position,Sitting,Standing, Holding head up
- 3. Storing substances within the body-contraction of smooth or skeletal muscle sphincters keeps contents in stomach, parts of intestine, urinary bladder etc.
- 4. Movement of substances within the body
- Heartbeat ,Digestive movements
- 5. Generation of heat (thermogenesis)
- Heat is a by-product of contraction. Used to maintain normal body temp. (85% of all body heat.)
What are the TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE? 3 pts
- 1. Skeletal muscle tissue:Skeletal-attached primarily to bones and moves parts of the skeleton
- 2. Cardiac muscle tissue-forms most of the heart, Involuntary-not under conscious control-has a built-in rhythm called autorhythmicity
- 3. Smooth muscle tissue-located in the walls of hollow organs such as BV, stomach, intestine, etc. and also arrector pili muscles.
- Smooth (non-striated)-striations NOT visible under microscope
- Involuntary-NOT under conscious control
What is the ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE?
- Skeletal muscles are associated with movements of the body and these movements are the results of the unique characteristics of skeletal muscle cells.
- Skeletal muscles are made up of an orderly arrangement of muscle fiber cells and connective tissues. Within the fascicle, individual muscle fiber cells are surrounded by endomysium.
- Skeletal muscles are composed of a several muscles fiber cells that are wrapped together to form a fascicle.
- (Fascicles are bundles of muscle fiber cells as per above's diagram)
- Fascicles are in turn surrounded by a connective tissue called the perimysium. Bunches of fascicles are then grouped together and covered with the epimysium to form the entire muscle.
- The connective tissues: endomysium, perimysium and epimysium then blend/merge into the tough collagen fibers called tendons, that attaches muscles indirectly to the bone. Not only does the 3 connective tissues attach muscles to bones, they also bind the muscle fibers tissues together and provide strength and support. See diagram below.
What is the THE SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY?
explains that the thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere. In order to slide past one another, the myosin heads will interact with the actin filaments and, using ATP, bend to pull past the actin.
What does the AGONIST do?
a contracting muscle whose action is opposed by another muscle.
What does the ANTAGONIST do?
when a muscle or a bone relaxes as the opposite contracts.
What are FAST AND SLOW TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRES?
- Slow-twitch fibers contract slowly and can be used for longer periods of time
- Fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and provide strength and speed, though they also fatigue more quickly
What is CONNECTIVE TISSUE?
Tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs, typically having relatively few cells embedded in an amorphous matrix, often with collagen or other fibers, and including cartilaginous, fatty, and elastic tissues
What is FASCIA?
A thin sheath of fibrous tissue enclosing a muscle or other organ
What is Deep Fascia?
Deep fascia is a layer of fascia which can surround individual muscles, and divide groups of muscles into compartments.
What is Muscle Fascia?
The dense fibrous connective tissue that interpenetrates and surrounds the muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels of the body.
What are TENDONS?
A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
What is APONEUROSIS?
A sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that takes the place of a tendon in sheetlike muscles having a wide area of attachment
What are SYNOVIAL TENDON SHEATHS?
Where the tendons cross joints, they are sheathed in thin membranes known as synovium, which provide lubrication to decrease friction.
What is BURSA?
A fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, esp. one countering friction at a joint.
What are the PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE TISSUE?
- Responsivness (excitability)
- Responsivness (excitability)
What are the TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE? 3pts and are the Voluntary or not, Striated or not?
- Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control.
- Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control.
- Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. They are striated in appearance and are under voluntary control.
What are MUSCLE TISSUE COMPONENTS? 6pts
- Muscle Belly
- Muscle Fibre
What does ISOMETRIC mean?
Of, relating to, or denoting muscular action in which tension is developed without contraction of the muscle.
What does CONCENTRIC mean?
the shortening of a muscle due to muscle contraction. Also known as the positive or positive contraction, moving the resistance away from the plane of gravity. For example, pulling the weight up in a biceps curl movement
What is ECCENTRIC?
the lengthening of the muscle while under the tension of resistance
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