Grant has 5 little wars go off at once, Lee wasnt able to move troops along like he did in the other war
Ulysses S. Grant
The Union general in the Western area of the Vicksburg
In Grant's opinion, why had the Union failed to make significant headway against Lee's Army of Northern Virginia?
What did Grant do differently than his predecessors after losing to Lee in the Wilderness?
Grant doesnt retreat
Why was it dangerous to allow the Virginia theater of war to stalemate into a siege?
Why was Sherman delighted to face off against John Bell Hood?
Hood is temporarily unsuited to command
What points were working against Lincoln going into the 1864 presidential election?
What was unique about this election?
Victory at Atlanta gave what to Lincoln? Why?
What was Sherman's Christmas present to Lincoln in 1864?
City of Savannah, Georgia
Sherman's March to the Sea
1.Sherman can cut his supply line and move his army faster.
2.Taking supplies from civilians inflicts terror on the civilian population. Union Army burns what they cannot consume
Lee needs to escape to this area
being hounded by Union which is following him
no food, just records of the Union
What final orders from Jefferson Davis did Lee refuse to carry out?
if the situation was ever hopeless,( take to the moutains,)
Lee should break up his army and create Gorilla warfare (breaking up his army)
What were the terms of surrender Grant offered to Lee?
surrender artillery, (keep own weapons)
keep personal animals (donkey, horse,ox)
paroled and sent home(as long as they dont rise up they will be ok)
What is the second type of Reconstruction? What is involved in it?
North and West-experienced an economic boom that did not end until 1929 and was fueled by
demographic changes-14M immigrants will come to US 1865-1890 most of the settle in North
Manufacturing stimulated by the war, finds expanding markets through the immigrants and new products (soap, shoes)
What is the Second type of Reconstruction? What is involved in it? part B
2-Economic Reconstruction part B
Everything of value-land and slaves is gone
b4 war 75% of the rural South owned the land they farmed
after those same people dont own the land they farm
in certain states, remained uncompleted until after WWII
What is the third type of Reconstruction? What is involved in it?
The accommodation of former slaves into a free status and the process of defining their roles in society. Some argue that this aspect of Reconstruction is incomplete
What are the first type of Reconstruction? What is involved in it?
A. the individual state is once again represented in Congress. Texas was the last state readmitted to the Union in the summer of 1870
During reconstruction, white Southerns are not US citizens so three classes of people will dominate the political vacuum in the former Confederate states: Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, Free Blacks
What are the first type of Reconstruction? What is involved in it? part B
redemption- Occurs when local whites in a state take back control of the local state government
What are the provisions of the Licoln Plan?Why is it unworkable?
also known as the 10% plan 1863,
10% of the people in a particular state who voted in 1860 must take a future loyalty oath, and then they can elect delegates for a state constitutional convention and submit the new constitution to Congress. NO reparations or apologies are necessary
purpose: to show the South how easy it would be to come back to the Union
What are the provisions of the Wade-Davis Bill? Why was it unworkable?
1864 50% of the white males in a new census must sign a retroactive and future loyalty oath before a state constitutional convention can form
problem: anybody who soldiered, paid taxes, used confederate money, sold crops to the confederacy or gave any sign of allegiance to the Confederacy could not sign
Be familiar with the wide range of attitudes about Reconstruction among Democrats and Republicans.
Where did Andrew Johnson originally stand and why did he begin to shift his opinions?
1865 Radial Rep., he shifted do to racism, inability to compromise
What did Republicans insist on that President Johnson could not abide?
What were the two main theories about the former Confederate states relation to the Union?
1 states never really left- president set terms
2 states had commit suicide- congress would decide when the states are going to return
How would those differences affect Reconstruction?
What reasons did Andrew Johnson break with the Republican Party?
blk voting/ citizenship
inability to compromise
What are the provisions of the Johnson Plan?
literate blacks be allowed to vote for the state constitution delegated
all the confederate states used this plan but created blackcodes
What mistakes did the South make in trying the plan?
What was Johnson's main point in his growing battles with Congress during Reconstruction?
What are the provisions of the 14th Amendment? What happened?
all a former Confederate state had to do was ratify the amendment to be readmitted into the Union
-people born in the US or naturalized are citizens of the US first and their state second
-if a state denies suffrage to any male citizen, then its representatives will be denied their vote in Congress
-Invalidated the Confederate was debt, which denied the Confederacy's existence, TN was the only state to ratify it, amendment ratified in 1868
What are the provisions of the Reconstruction Acts?
The ten remaining states were divided into 5 military districts and occupied by the Union Army whose purpose was to register voters (more blacks were registered then whites) The states then went through the process of writing and voting a new constitution to send off to Congress
"narrow view" of impeachment
impeached for crimes a normal person
"broad view" of impeachment
he is using his power to the point of abuse
Identify the provisions of the Compromise of 1877
What are the three ways blacks were kept from voting after Reconstruction ended?
grandfather laws- have to prove your gpa voted in 1860 (cant happen for blks)
What was the single greastest failure of Reconstruction and what were the short and long ramifications?
13th Amedment to the Constitution
14th Amedment to the Constitution
all a former confederate state had to do was ratify the amendment to be readmitted into the Union
15th Amedment to the Constitution
last one for almost 50yrs
cannot deny a person to vote based on race, color, or previous condition (slavery)
Northerners who moved to the South to take advantage of the political and economic vacuum
Southerners who got little crumbs of power from the Carpetbaggers
"swing around the circle"
nov 1866 mid term elections Johnson goes out and gives speeches, got into screaming matches, trading insults,
didnt look presidential
Occurs when local whites in a state take back control of the local state government
General Amnesty Act
restored US citizenship to all former confederates EXCEPT Robert E. Lee and
run for office
Under the black codes from the Johnson Plan, blacks would be unable to sue whites or give testimony against them