Muscles of the Lower Limb

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Author:
rustemk
ID:
1655
Filename:
Muscles of the Lower Limb
Updated:
2009-11-25 09:54:01
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Lower Limb Muscles
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Description:
I,A,O,N of the Muscles of the Lower Limb
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  1. Gastrocnemius
    • Origin: Posterior condyles of femur
    • Insertion: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Flexes the knee and plantar flees the ankle
  2. Soleus
    • Origin: Soleal line and posterior surface of tibia; prox., post. surface of fibula
    • Insertion: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Plantar flexes the ankle (talocrural joint)
  3. Tibialis Posterior
    • Origin: Prox. post. shaft of tibia, prox. fibula, interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Navicular, cuneiform, cuboid bases of 2nd-4th metatarsals
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Inverts foot, plantar flexes ankle
  4. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin: Middle posterior surface of tibia
    • Insertion: Distal phalanges of 2nd-5th toes
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Flexes 2nd-5th toes, weak plantar flexion of ankle, inverts foot
  5. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    • Origin: Middle half of post. fibula
    • Insertion: Distal phalanx of 1st toe
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Flexes 1st toe, weak plantar flexion fo ankle, inverts foot
  6. Tibialis Anterior
    • Origin: Lat. condyle of tibia, prox. lateral surface of tibia, interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Medial cuneiform, base of 1st metacarpal
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Inverts foot, dorsiflexes ankle
  7. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin: Lat. condyle of tibia, prox. anterior shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of 2nd-5th toes
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Extends 2nd-5th toes, dorsiflexes ankle, and everts foot
  8. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • Origin: Middle anterior surface of fibula, interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Distal phalanx of 1st toe
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Extends the 1st toe, dorsiflexes the ankle, inverts the foot
  9. Peroneus Longus
    • Origin: Proximal 2/3 of lat. fibula
    • Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal of medial cuneiform
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Everts the foot, assists in plantar flexion of the ankle
  10. Peroneus Brevis
    • Origin: Distal 2/3 of lateral fibula
    • Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal, medial cuneiform
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Everts foot, assists in plantar flexion of ankle
  11. Extensor Digitorum Brevis
    • Origin: Calcaneus
    • Insertion: Toes 2-4 via extensor digitorum longus tendons
    • Innervation: Peroneal n.
    • Actions: Extends 2nd-4th toes
  12. Flexor Digitorum Brevis
    • Origin: Calcaneus
    • Insertion: Middle phalanges of 2nd-4th toes
    • Innervation: Plantar n.
    • Actions: Extends 2nd-4th toes
  13. Abductor Hallucis
    • Origin: Calcaneus
    • Insertion: Prox. phalange on 1st toe, medial sesamoid bone
    • Innervation: Medial plantar
    • Actions: Abducts 1st toe, assists in flexion of 1st toe
  14. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Calcaneus
    • Insertion: Prox. phalange of 5th toe
    • Innervation: Lateral plantar
    • Actions: Flexes 5th toe, assists in abduction of 5th toe
  15. Plantaris
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of femur
    • Insertion: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Weak plantar flexion of the ankle
  16. Popliteus
    • Origin: Lateral condyle of femur
    • Insertion: Proximal, posterior aspect of tibia
    • Innervation: Tibial n.
    • Actions: Medially rotates the flexed knee, flexes the knee
  17. Sartorius
    • Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
    • Insertion: Proximal, medial shaft of tibia (pes anserinus tendon)
    • Innervation: Femoral n.
    • Actions: Flexes, laterally rotates, abducts hip (coxal joint), flexes and medially rotates flexed knee (tibiofemoral joint)
  18. Psoas Major
    • Proximal Attachment: Sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and discs between them; transverse processs of all lumbar vertebrae
    • Distal Attachment: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Anterior rami of lumbar nerve (L1-L3)
    • Actions: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes joint; control deviation of trunk, active during standing (postural)
  19. Iliacus
    • Proximal Attachment: Iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligaments
    • Distal Attachment: Tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter, and femur distal to it
    • Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2, L3)
    • Actions: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes joint
  20. Rectus Femoris
    • Proximal Attachment: Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum
    • Distal Attachment: Via common quadriceps tendon and indipendent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
    • Actions: extends leg at knee joint, steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas flex thigh
  21. Vastus Lateralis
    • Proximal Attachment: Greater trochanter and lateral tip of linea aspera
    • Distal Attachment: Via common quadriceps tendon and indipendent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
    • Actions: Extends leg at knee joint
  22. Vastus Medialis
    • Proximal Attachment: Intertrochanteric line and medial tip of linea aspera of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Via common quadriceps tendon and indipendent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
    • Actions: Extend leg at knee joint
  23. Vastus Intermedius
    • Proximal Attachment: Anterior lateral surface of shaft of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Via common quadriceps tendon and indipendent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
    • Actions: Extends leg at knee joint
  24. Biceps Femoris
    • Origin: Long head - Ischial Tuberosity; Short head - Lat. Lip of linea aspera
    • Insertion: Head of fibula
    • Innervation: Peroneal and sciatic nn.
    • Actions: Flex & laterally rotate flexed knee (tibiofemoral joint), extend & laterally rotate hip (coxal joint), tilt pelvis posteriorly
  25. Semitendinosus
    • Origin: ischial Tuberosity
    • Insertion: Proximal medial shaft of tibia at pes anserinum tendon
    • Innervation: Sciatic n.
    • Actions: Flex & medially rotates flexed knee (tibiofemoral joint), extend & medially rotate hip (coxal joint), tilt pelvis posteriorly
  26. Semimembranosus
    • Origin: Ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: Posterior aspect of medial condyle of tibia
    • Innervation: Sciatic n.
    • Actions: Actions: Flex & medially rotates flexed knee (tibiofemoral joint), extend & medially rotate hip (coxal joint), tilt pelvis posteriorly
  27. Gluteus Maximus
    • Origin: Coccyx, posterior sacrum,posterior iliac crest, sacrotuberous and sacroiliac ligaments
    • Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity (upper fibers) and iliotibial tract (lower fibers)
    • Innervation: Gluteal n.
    • Actions: Extends the hip (coxal joint), laterally rotates the hip (coxal joint), lower fibers adduct the hip (coxal joint)
  28. Gluteus Medius
    • Origin: External surface of the ilium between iliac crest and posterior and anterior gluteal lines
    • Insertion: Greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Gluteal n.
    • Actions: Abducts the hip (coxal joint), flexes the hip (coxal joint), extends the hip (coxal joint), may medially rotate and laterally rotate the hip (coxal joint)
  29. Gluteus Minimus
    • Origin: External surface of the ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
    • Insertion: Anterior border of greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Gluteal n.
    • Actions: Abducts the hip (coxal joint), medially rotates the hip (coxal joint), flexes the hip (coxal joint)
  30. Adductor Longus
    • Origin: Pubic tubercle
    • Insertion: Medial lip of linea aspera
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Adduct, medially rotate, assist to flex hip (coxal joint)
  31. Adductor Brevis
    • Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis
    • Insertion: Pectineal line and medial lip of linea aspera
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Adduct, medially rotate, assist to flex hip (coxal joint)
  32. Adductor Magnus
    • Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, and ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Adduct, medially rotate, assist to flex hip (coxal joint); flexes and medially rotates knee (tibiofemoral joint), post. fibers extend hip (coxal joint)
  33. Pectineus
    • Origin: Superior ramus of pubis
    • Insertion: Pectineal line of femur
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Adduct, medially rotate, assist to flex hip (coxal joint)
  34. Gracilis
    • Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium
    • Insertion: Proximal, medial shaft of tibia at pes anserinus tendon
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Adduct, medially rotate hip
  35. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • Origin: Iliac crest, posterior to the ASIS
    • Insertion: Iliotibial tract
    • Innervation: Gluteal n.
    • Actions: Flexes hip (coxal joint), medially rotates the hip (coxal joint), abducts the hip (coxal joint)
  36. Obturator Externus
    • Proximal Attachment: Mergins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Trochanteric fossa of femur
    • Innervation: Obturator nerve (L3, L4)
    • Actions: Laterally rotates thigh, steadies head of femur in acetabulum
  37. Piriformis
    • Origin: Anterior surface of sacrum
    • Insertion: Greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Sacral n.
    • Actions: Laterally rotates hip (coxal joint), abducts thigh when the hip is flexed
  38. Obturator Internus
    • Origin: Obturator membrane and pelvic surface
    • Insertion:Medial surface of greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Obturator n.
    • Actions: Laterally rotates hip (coxal joint)
  39. Superior Gemellus
    • Origin: Spine of ischium
    • Insertion: Upper border of greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Sacral n.
    • Actions: Laterally rotates hip (coxal joint)
  40. Inferior Gemellus
    • Origin: Ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: Upper border of greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Sacral n.
    • Actions: Laterally rotates hip (coxal joint)

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