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Four Components of Personhood:
What does neocortical function control?
How can we reject higher brain death in PVS?
PVS patients have potential for neocortical function
Once had neocortical function
3 components of Utilitarianism
1) maximum good for highest number of people
2) Consequences alone matter
3) Each person is equal
How would utilitarian favor organ sales?
1) serious shortage of organs (only 8,000; 107,000 people died in 2010); many would saved
2) Undercut black market
3) Give money to poor
4) Both donor and recipient benefit
5) Current model leads to judging moral worth of recipients
Utilitarian against organ sales?
1) Poor are exploited for organs; advantage for rich
2) Coerces donor to take risks
3) Flood market with possibly unhealthy organs
Three tenets of Kant philosophy?
1) act itself matters more than consequences (morally irrelevant)
- 2) People to follow certain rules, or maxims.
- This is known as the Categorical imperative
3) Morality does not rest on results, but rather on sense of duty
Kant favor organ sales?
- Maxim: never violate personal autonomy
- Categorical imperative: person can choose to use organs in dire financial circumstances
Kant against organ sales?
1) The act makes people means for others’ survival
2) Assigns value to people; violates dignity and duty to one’s body
3) does not treat people equally
- 4) act violates the driving force behind moralityà sake of duty,
- deontological (may appears so, but it
- does not stem from duty)
Discuss metaphysical, moral, and medical components of Callahan's view on euthanasia
- “External world is distinct from the self and has its own
- causal dynamism”
- -we can forestall death, but it is inevitable
- -Active cuts off possibility for life while passive does not
- -human agency vs. action of external nature
- -life was being sustained by artificial means, disease took over
- -Active goes against doctor’s obligations to welfare of patient
- -Passive allows physicians to do what’s best for patient
How can you believe we should still tell family about removing life support?
1) Metaphysical: stroke caused death and was inevitable
2) Moral: life sustained artificiallyàphysicians not morally culpable, but still should be fully honest about course of treatment
3) Medical: physicians believed her welfare was best kept by removing support. Continuing support would only cause more harm