Card Set Information

2012-08-09 21:24:53

pmp terms
Show Answers:

  1. affinity diagram
    Clusters similar ideas together and allows for decomposition of ideas to compare and contrast project requirements.
  2. brainstorming
    A group creativity technique to express as many ideas as possible about project requirements.
  3. decomposition
    The breakdown of the project scope statement into the project's work breakdown structure. The smallest item of the project's decomposition into the WBS is called the work package.
  4. Delphi Technique
    A consensus-building group creativity technique that uses rounds of anonymous surveys during requirements elicitation. The Delphi Technique may also be used during risk assessment.
  5. dictatorship
    A group decision process where the person with the most power forces the decision, even though the rest of the group may oppose the decision.
  6. facilitated workshop
    A collection of stakeholders from around the organization that come together to analyze, discuss, and determine the project requirements.
  7. focus group
    A conversation of stakeholders led by a moderator to elicit project requirements.
  8. function analysis
    Related to value engineering, this allows team input to the problem, institutes a search for a logical solution, and tests the functions of the product so the results can be graphed.
  9. interviews
    a requirements elicitation process to collect requirements from the project stakeholders.
  10. majority
    A group decision process where a vote is offered and the majority wins.
  11. mind mapping
    A visual representation of like and opposing ideas, thoughts, and project requirements.
  12. nominal group technique
    A group creativity technique that follows the brainstorming model but ranks each brainstorm idea.
  13. observation
    A requirements elicitation process where the observer shadows a person to understand how she completes a process. An observer may be a participant observer or an invisible observer.
  14. plurality
    A group decision process approach that allows the biggest section of a group to win even if a majority does not exist.
  15. product scope
    The attributes and characteristics of the deliverables the project is creating.
  16. project scope statement
    The definition of what the project will create for the project stakeholders. The project scope statement includes the product scope description, product acceptance criteria, project deliverables, project exclusions, project assumptions, and project constraints.
  17. prototype
    A mockup of the project deliverable to confirm, adapt, or develop the project requirements.
  18. quality function
    A philosophy and a practice to fully understand customer needs-both spoken and implied-without gold-plating the project deliverables.
  19. requirements documentation
    A clearly defined explanation of the project requirements. The requirements must be measurable, complete, accurate, and signed of by the stakeholders.
  20. requirements management plan
    Defines how requirements will be managed throughout the phases of the project. This plan also defines how any changes to the requirements will be allowed, documented, and tracked through project execution.
  21. requirements traceability matrix
    A table that helps the project team identify the characteristics and delivery of each requirement in the project scope.
  22. scope baseline
    Comprised of the project scope statement, the work breakdown structure, and the WBS dictionary.
  23. scope management plan
    Explains how the project scope will be managed and how scope changes will be factored into the project plan. Based on the conditions of the projected, the project work, and the confidence of the project scope, the scope management plan should also define the likelihood of changes to the scope, how often the scope may change, and how much the scope can change.
  24. scope verification
    An inspection-driven process led by the project customer to determine the exactness of the project deliverables. Scope verification is a process that leads to customer acceptance of the project deliverables.
  25. systems engineering
    Focuses on satisfying the customers' needs, cost requirements, and quality demands through the design and creation of the product. There is an entire science devoted to systems engineering in various industries.
  26. unanimity
    A group decision process where all participants are in agreement.
  27. value analysis
    Similar to value engineering, this focuses on the cost/quality ratio of the product. Value analysis focuses on the expected quality against the acceptable cost.
  28. value engineering
    Deals with reducing costs and increasing profits, all while improving quality. Its focus is on solving problems, realizing opportunities, and maintaining quality improvement.
  29. voice of the customer
    The initial collection of customer requirements that serves as part of quality function deployment in a facilitated workshop.
  30. work breakdown structure
    A decomposition of the project scope statement into work packages. The WBS is an input to seven project management processes: developing the project management plan, defining the project activities, estimating the project costs, determining the project budget, planning the project quality, identifying the project risks, and planning the project procurement needs.
  31. work breakdown structure dictionary
    A companion to the WBS, this document defines all of the characteristics of each element of the WBS.
  32. work breakdown structure templates
    based on historical information, this is a WBS from a past project that has been adapted to the current project.
  33. application areas
    The areas of discipline that a project may center upon. Consider technology, law, sales, marketing, and construction, among many others.
  34. deliverable
    A thing that a project creates; projects generally create many deliverables as part of the project work.
  35. Iron Triangle
    A term used to describe the three constraints of every project: time, cost and scope. The sides of the Iron Triangle must be kept in balance or the quality of the project will suffer.
  36. Management by Projects
    An organization that uses projects to move the company forward is using the Management by Projects approach. These project-centric entities could manage any level of their work as a project.
  37. operations
    The ongoing work of the business. Operations are a generic way to describe the activities that support the core functions of a business entity.
  38. PMBOK Guide
    The abbreviated definition for PMI's A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge.
  39. PMP
    A PMP is certified by the Project Management Institute as a Project Management Professional.
  40. programs
    A collection of projects working in unison to realize benefits that could not be achieved by managing each project independently of one another.
  41. progressive elaboration
    The process of starting with a large idea and, through incremental analysis, actions, and planning, making the idea more and more specific. Progressive elaboration is the generally accepted planning process for project management, wherein the project management team starts with a broad scope and works towards a specific, detailed plan.
  42. project
    An undertaking outside of normal operations to create a unique product, service, condition, or result. Projects are temporary, while operations are ongoing.
  43. project communications management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; it is the planning and management of communication among project stakeholders.
  44. project cost management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; it is the estimating, budgeting, and controlling of the project expenses.
  45. project human resource management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; projects are completed by people, and the project manager generally oversees the management of the human resources on the project team.
  46. project integration management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; this knowledge area coordinates the activities and completeness of the eight other knowledge areas.
  47. project management
    The management of projects within an organization. It is the initiation, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing of the temporary endeavor of a project.
  48. project management office (PMO)
    Organizes and manages control over all projects within an organization. A PMO also may be known as a program management office, project office, or simply the program office. Coordinates all aspects, methodology, and nomenclature for project processes, templates, software, and resource assignment.
  49. project procurement management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; this knowledge area oversees the purchasing and contract administration for a project.
  50. project quality management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; this knowledge area defines quality assurance, quality control, and the quality policy for the project.
  51. project risk management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; the project risk management knowledge area defines the risk identification, analysis, responses and control of risk events.
  52. project scope management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; this knowledge area defines the project requirements, scope creation, and control.
  53. project time management
    One of the nine project management knowledge areas; this knowledge area defines the approach to time estimating, scheduling, and control of the project activities.
  54. subprojects
    A subproject exists under a parent project, but follows its own schedule to completion. Subprojects may be outsourced, assigned to other project managers, or managed by the parent project manager but with a different project team.
  55. Triple Constraints of Project Management
    Desribes the required balance of time, cost, and scope for the project. The Triple Constraints of Project Management is also defined by the Iron Triangle of Project Management.
  56. work breakdown structure
    The visual decomposition of the project scope. If represents all of the deliverables the project promises to create.
  57. composite structure
    An organizational structure that uses a blend of the functional, matrix, and projectized organizations to operate and manage projects.
  58. cultural norm
    The accepted practices, culture, ideas, vision, and nature of an organization.
  59. fast tracking
    A schedule-compression technique that allows phases to overlap in order to compress the schedule and finish the job faster. Fast tracking does increase project risk.
  60. functional managers
    the managers of the permanent staff in each organizational department, line of business, or function such as sales, finance, and technology. Project managers and functional managers interact on project decisions that affect functions, projects, and operations.
  61. functional organizations
    Entities that have a clear division regarding business units and their associated responsibilities. Project managers in functional organizations have little power and report to the functional managers. This is an organization that groups staff according to their expertise - for example, sales, marketing, finance, and information technology. Project managers in functional structures report to functional managers, and the project team exists within one department.
  62. iterative relationships of project phases
    Ideal for projects like research. The next phase of the project is not planned until the current phase of the project is underway. The direction of the project can change based on the current work in the project, market conditions, or as more information is discovered.
  63. kill point
    An opportunity to halt the project based on project performance in the previous phase. Kill points typically come at the end of a project phase and are also known as phase gates.
  64. matrix structure
    An organization that groups staff by function but openly shares resources on project teams throughout the organization. Project managers in a matrix structure share the power with functional management. There are three types of matrix structures: weak, balanced, and strong to describe the amount of authority for the project manager.
  65. operations management
    Operations managers deal directly with the income-generating products or services the company provides. Projects often affect the core business, so these managers are stakeholders in the project.
  66. overlapping relationships of phases
    Allows project phases to overlap to compress the project duration. This is also known as fast tracking.
  67. portfolio management review board
    A collection of organizational decision makers, usually executives, that review proposed projects and programs for their value and return on investment for the organization.
  68. product life cycle
    The unique life, duration, and support of the thing a project creates. A product life cycle is separate from the project life cycle.
  69. program manager
    Coordinates the efforts of multiple projects working together in the program. Programs are comprised of projects, so it makes sense that the program manager would be a stakeholder in each of the projects within the program, right?
  70. project customer/end user
    The person or group that will use the project deliverable. In some instances, a project may have many different customers.
  71. project governance
    Defines the rules for a project; it's up to the project manager to enforce the project governance to ensure the project's ability to reach its objectives. The project management plan defines the project governance and how the project manager, the project team, and the organization will follow the rules and policies within the project.
  72. project life cycle
    Unique to each project and comprised of phases of work. Project life cycles typically create a milestone and allow subsequent phases to begin/
  73. project management office (PMO)
    A stakeholder of the project because it supports the project managers and is responsible for the project's success. PMOs typically provide administrative support, training for the project managers, resource management for the project team and project staffing, and centralized communication.
  74. project management team
    People on the project team that are involved with managing the project.
  75. project manager
    The person accountable for managing the project and guiding the team through the project phases to completion
  76. project sponsor
    Authorizes the project. This person or group ensures that the project manager has the necessary resources, including monies, to get the work done. The project sponsor is someone within the performing organization who has the power to authorize and sanction the project work and who is ultimately accountable for the project's success.
  77. project team
    The collection of individuals that will work together to ensure the success of the project. the project manager works wit the project team to guide, schedule, and oversee the project work. The project team completes the project work.
  78. projectized structure
    Grouping employees, collocated or not, by activities on a particular project. The project manager in a projectized structure may have complete, or very close to complete, power over the project team.
  79. sellers and business partners
    vendors, contractors, and business partners that help projects achieve their objectives. These business partners can affect the project's success and are considered stakeholders in the project.
  80. sequential relationship of phases
    Each phase of a project relies on the completion of the previous phase before it can begin.
  81. closing
    The fifth of five project management process groups. It contains the processes responsible for closing a project, a project phase, or the procurement relationships.
  82. executing
    The project management process group that carries out the project management plan to create the project deliverables.
  83. initiating
    The start and authorization of the project; the project manager is identified, the project is authorized through the charter, and the stakeholders are identified.
  84. knowledge areas
    There are nine knowledge areas within project management; each knowledge area is a specific portion of the project, and all nine project management knowledge areas are interrelated.
  85. monitoring and controlling
    The project management process group responsible for ensuring that the project execution is completed according to the project management plan and expectations.
  86. planning
    The iterative process group where the intention of the project is determined and documented in the project management plan.
  87. project charter
    The first project document that authorizes the project, identifies the project manager, and creates the high-level objectives for the project.
  88. project communications management
    A project management knowledge area that carries out the directions of the project's communication management plan.
  89. project cost management
    A project management knowledge area that defines cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.
  90. project human resource management
    A project management knowledge area that creates the human resource plan, acquires the project team, develops the project team, and managed the project team.
  91. project integration management
    A project management knowledge area that coordinates all of the effort of the project's initiation, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing.
  92. project procurement management
    A project procurement management area that plans what needs to be procured, procures the project needs, administers the procurement process, and closes procurement according to the project terms and the procurement management plan.
  93. project quality management
    A project management knowledge area that coordinates the quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control of the project.
  94. project risk management
    A project management knowledge area that creates the risk management plan, performs qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, plans risk responses and monitors and controls the project risks.
  95. project scope management
    A project management knowledge area responsbile for collecting project requirements, defining the project scope, creating the WBS, performing scope verification, and controlling the project scope.
  96. project time management
    A project management knowledge area that defines the project activities, sequences project work, estimates resources and activity durations, and develops the project schedule. This knowledge area is also responsible for control of the project schedule.
  97. activity attributes
    Activities that have special conditions, requirements, risks, and other conditions should be documented.
  98. activity cost estimates
    The cost of resources, including materials, services, and, when warranted, labor should be estimated.
  99. activity list
    A shopping list of all the activities the project team must complete in order to satisfy the project. This list is an input to the project network diagram.
  100. assumption log
    A document that clearly identifies and tracks assumptions that are made in the project. All assumptions need to be tested for their validity, and the outcome of the test should be recorded.
  101. benefit measurement methods
    Project selection methods that compare the benefits of projects to determine which project the organization should invest its funds into.
  102. benefit/cost ratios
    Shows the proportion of benefits to costs; for example 4:1 would equate to four benefits to just one cost.
  103. change control board
    A group of decision makes that review proposed project changes.
  104. change control system
    A predefined set of activities, forms, and procedures to entertain project change requests.
  105. change log
    As changes to the project time, cost, or scope enter the project, they should be recorded in the change log for future reference.
  106. change management plan
    when changes are approved for a project, including time, cost, scope, or contract, there needs to be a plan on how the project team will manage these new changes within the project.
  107. communications management plan
    Defines the required communications and how they will be fulfilled; explains the methods used for gathering, storing, and dispersing information to appropriate parties. In addition, the communcations management plan maps out the schedule of when the expected communication needs will be met.
  108. configuration management
    The control and documentation of the project's product features and functions.
  109. constrained optimization methods
    Complex mathematical models to determine the likelihood of a project's success in order to determine if the organization should invest its funds into the project.
  110. constraints
    Anything that limits the project manager's options; for example, time, cost, and scope are always project constraints.
  111. contract
    A legally binding agreement between the buyer(s) and seller(s) that defines the roles and responsibilities of all parties in the agreement.
  112. cost management plan
    Explains how variances to the costs of the project will be managed. The plan may be based on a range of acceptable variances and the expected response to variances over a given threshold.
  113. duration estimates
    The prediction of how long the project work will take to complete.
  114. earned value management
    A suite of formulas to measure the project's overall performance for time and costs.
  115. forecast
    Throughout the project, the project manager will create forecasts about the expected project completion date and projected project costs.
  116. future value
    A formula to predict the current amount of funds into a future amount of funds. The formula is Future Value = Present Value(1+i)n, where i is the value of return and n is the number of time periods.
  117. historical information
    Any information created in the past that can help the current project succeed.
  118. human resources plan
    Details on how the project team members will be brought onto and released from the project.
  119. internal rate of return
    A benefit measurement formula to calculate when the present value of the cash inflow equals the project's original investment.
  120. issue log
    Issues are decisions that are usually in disagreement among two or more parties. Issues are recorded in the issue log, along with an issue owner designation, an issue date for resolution, and the eventual outcome of the issue.
  121. lessons learned
    Ongoing collection of documentation about what has and has not worked in the project; the project manager and the project team participate in lessons-learned creation.
  122. murder board
    A group of decision makers that may determine to "kill" a proposed project before it is officially launched, based on the board's findings on the likelihood of the project's success.
  123. net present value
    A benefit measurement formula that provides a precise measurement of the present value of each year the project generates a return on investment.
  124. payback period
    The duration of time it takes a project to earn back the original investment.
  125. performance reports
    These formal reports define how the project is performing on time, cost, scope, quality, and any other relevant information.
  126. PMIS
    A project management information system is typically a software system, such as Microsoft Project, to assist the project manager in managing the project.
  127. present value
    A benefit measurement formula to determine what a future amount of funds is worth today. The formula is Present Value = Future Value/(1+i)n, where i is the value of the return and n is the number of time periods.
  128. process improvement plan
    Identifies methods to track and eliminate waste and non-value-added activities.
  129. procurement documents
    all of the documents for purchasing, such as request for quotes, invitation to bid, request for proposal, and the responses, are stored as part of the project documentation.
  130. procurement management plan
    Describes the procurement process from solicitation to source selection. The plan may also include the requirements for selection as set by the organization.
  131. project baselines
    Three baselines in a project are used to measure project performance: cost, schedule, and scope.
  132. project charter
    A document that authorizes the project, defines the high-level requirements, identifies the project manager and the project sponsor, and provides initial information about the project.
  133. project funding requirements
    In larger projects, this document identifies the timeline of when capital is required for the project to move forward. This document defines the amount of funds a project needs and when the project funds are needed in order to reach its objectives.
  134. project integration management
    One of the nine knowledge areas that is responsible for coordinating the efforts of the other eight knowledge areas.
  135. project plan
    A comprehensive document comprised of several subsidiary plans that communicates the intent and direction of the project.
  136. proposals
    proposals are an expos´┐Ż on ideas, suggestions, recommendations, and solutions to an opportunity provided by a vendor for a seller.
  137. quality management plan
    Details the quality improvement, quality controls, and how the project will map to the quality assurance program of the performing organization
  138. requirements traceability matrix
    A table that identifies all of the project requirements, when the requirements are due, when the requirements are created, and any other pertinent information about the requirements.
  139. resource breakdown structure
    This chart identifies the resources utilized in the project in each section of the WBS.
  140. resource calendar
    You'll need to know when people and facilities are available or scheduled to work on the project.
  141. resource requirements
    The identification of what resources are needed to complete the project work is needed as a supporting document for planning. This includes people, materials, equipment, facilities, and services.
  142. responsibility assignment matrix
    This is a table that maps roles to responsibilities in the project.
  143. risk management plan
    Details the identified risks within the project, the risks associated with the constraints and project assumptions, and how the project team will monitor, react, or avoid the risks.
  144. risk register
    A risk is an uncertain event or condition that can have a positive or negative effect on the project. All risks, regardless of their probability or impact, are recorded in the issue log and their status is kept current.
  145. roles and responsibilities
    Maps project roles to responsibilities within the project; roles are positions on the project team, and responsibilities are project activities.
  146. schedule management plan
    Identifies circumstances that may change the project schedule, such as the completion of project phases or the reliance on other projects and outside resources. The schedule management plan details the approval and accountability process for changes within the project.
  147. scope management plan
    Details how the project scope should be maintained and protected from change, as well as how a change in scope may be allowed.
  148. scoring models
    A project selection method that assigns categories and corresponding values to measure a project's worthiness of investment.
  149. sellers list
    a listing of the vendors an organization does business with. You might know this document as a preferred vendors list in your company.
  150. source selection criteria
    A predefined listing of the criteria to determine how a vendor will be selected - for example, cost, experience, certifications, and the like.
  151. statement of work
    A document that defines the project work that is to be completed internally or by a vendor.
  152. supporting detail for estimates
    The project manager should document how time and cost estimates were created.
  153. teaming agreements
    A contractual agreement that defines the roles, responsibilities, considerations, and partnerships of two or more organizations that work together in a project. It's not unlike a partnership or subcontractor relationship.
  154. work performance information
    The current status of the project work; includes the results of activities, corrective and preventive action status, forecasts for activity completion, and other relevant information.
  155. work performance measurements
    there are predefined metrics for measuring project performance, such as cost variances, schedule variances, and estimate to complete.
  156. activity list
    A listing of all of the project activities required to complete each project phase or the entire project.
  157. activity on node
    A network diagramming approach that places the activities on a node in the project network diagram.
  158. activity sequencing
    The process of mapping the project activities in the order in which the work should be completed.
  159. analogous estimating
    A duration-estimating technique that bases the current project duration estimate on historical information from similar projects.
  160. crashing
    A duration-compression technique that adds project resources to the project in an effort to reduce the amount of time allotted for effort-driven activities.
  161. critical chain method
    A network diagramming approach that considers the availability of project resources and the project's promised end date to the determine the critical path(s) in the project.
  162. critical path method
    A network diagramming approach that identifies the project activities that cannot be delayed or the project completion date will be late.
  163. discretionary dependencies
    The order of the project activities do not have to be completed in a particular order. These tasks can be completed in the order of the project manager or the project team's discretion.
  164. fast-tracking
    A duration-compression technique that allows entire phases of a project to overlap other phases.
  165. finish-to-finish
    A relationship between project activities where the predecessor activities must finish before successor activities may finish.
  166. finish-to-start
    A relationship between project activities where the predecessor activities must finish before successor activities may start; this is the most common network diagramming relationship type.
  167. float
    A generic term to describe the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying any successor activities' start dates.
  168. FNET
    A project constraint that requires an activity to finish no earlier than a specific date.
  169. fragnet
    A portion of the project that is usually contracted to a vendor to complete, yet the project work is still represented in the project network diagram.
  170. hard logic
    The project activities must be completed in a particular order; this is also known as mandatory dependencies.
  171. lag
    Time added to a project activity to delay its start time; lag time is considered positive time, and it sometimes called waiting time.
  172. lead
    Time added to an activity to allow its start time to begin earlier than schedule; lead time is negative time, as it moves the activities closer to the project's start date.
  173. mandatory dependencies
    Project activities must happen in a particular order due to the nature of the work; also known as hard logic.
  174. Monte Carlo analysis
    A what-if scenario tool to determine how scenarios may work out, given any number of variables. The process doesn't actually create a specific answer, but a range of possible answers. When Monte Carlo is applied to a schedule, it can present, for example, the optimistic completion date, the pessimistic completion date, and the most likely completion date for each activity in the project.
  175. network template
    A network diagram based on previous similar projects that is adapted for the current project work.
  176. parametric estimating
    Ideal for projects with repetitive work where a parameter, such as five hours per unit, is used to estimate the project duration.
  177. Parkinson's Law
    Work expands to fill the amount of time allotted to it.
  178. precedence diagramming method
    The most common method of arranging the project work visually. The PDM puts the activities in boxes, called nodes, and connects the boxes with arrows. The arrows represent the relationship and the dependencies of the work packages.
  179. project calendar
    A calendar that defines the working times for the project. For example, a project may require the project team to work nights and weekends so as not to disturb the ongoing operations of the organization during working hours. In addition, the project calendar accounts for holidays, working hours, and work shifts the project will cover.
  180. resource calendar
    The resource calendar shows when resources, such as project team members, consultants, and SMEs, are available to work on the project. It takes into account vacations, other commitments within the organization, restrictions on contracted work, overtime issues, and so on.
  181. resource-leveling heuristics
    A method to flatten the schedule when resources are overallocated or allocated unevenly. Resource leveling can be applied in different methods to accomplish different goals. One of the most common methods is to ensure that workers are not overextended on activities.
  182. schedule control
    part of integrated change management, schedule control is concerned with three processes: the project manager confirms that any schedule changes are agreed upon; the project manager examines the work results and conditions to know if the schedule has changed; and the project manager manages the actual change in the schedule.
  183. schedule management plan
    A subsidiary plan of the overall project plan. It is used to control changes to the schedule. A formal schedule management plan has procedures that control how changes to the project plan can be proposed, accounted for, and then implemented.
  184. schedule variance
    The difference between the planned work and the completed work
  185. SNET
    A project constraint that demands that a project activity start no earlier than a specific date.
  186. soft logic
    The preferred order of activities. Project managers should use these relationships at their "discretion" and document the logic behind making soft logic decisions. Discretionary dependencies allow activities to happen in a preferred order because of best practices, conditions unique to the project work, or external events; also known as discretionary dependencies.
  187. start-to-finish
    A relationship that requires an activity to start so that a successor activity may finish; it is unusual and is rarely used.
  188. start-to-start
    A relationship structure that requires a task to start before a successor task activity may start. This relationship allows both activities to happen in tandem.
  189. three-point estimate
    An estimate that uses optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic values to determine the cost or duration of a project component.
  190. actual costs
    The amount of funds the project has spent to date. The difference between actual costs and the earned value will reveal the cost variance.
  191. analogous estimating
    This relies on historical information to predict estimates for current projects. Analogous estimating is also known as top-down estimating and is a form of expert judgment.
  192. bottom-up estimating
    A technique where an estimate for each component in the WBS is developed and the totaled for an overall project budget. This is the longest method to complete, but it provides the most accurate estimate.
  193. budget at completion
    The predicted budget for the project; what the project should cost when it is completed. Budget at completion represents 100 percent of the planned value for the project's completion.
  194. chart of accounts
    A coding system used by the performing organization's accounting system to account for the project work.
  195. cast baseline
    This shows what the project is expected to spend. It's usually shown in an S-curve and allows the project manager and management to predict when the project will be spending monies and over what duration. The purpose of the cost baseline is to measure and predict project performance.
  196. cost budgeting
    A process of assigning a cost to an individual work package. This process shows costs over time. The cost budget results in an S-curve that becomes the cost baseline for the project.
  197. cost change control
    This is part of the integrated change control system and documents the procedures to request, approve, and incorporate changes to the project costs.
  198. cost estimating
    The process of calculating the costs, by category, of the identified resources to complete the project work.
  199. cost management plan
    A subsidiary plan of the overall project management plan that defines how costs will be estimated, budgeted, and controlled.
  200. cost performance index
    The process of calculating the costs, by category, of the identified resources to complete the project work.
  201. cost variance
    The difference between the earned value and the actual costs.
  202. direct costs
    These costs are attributed directly to the project and cannot be shared with operations or other projects.
  203. earned value
    The value of the work that has been completed and the budget for that work: EV= % Complete * BAC.
  204. earned value management
    Earned value management integrates scope. schedule, and cost to give an objective, scalable, point-in-time assessment of the project. EVM calculates the performance of the project and compares current performance against plan. EVM can also be a harbinger of things to come. Results early in the project can predict the likelihood of the project's success or failure.
  205. estimate at completion
    A hypothesis of what the total cost of the project will be. Before the project begins, the project manager completes an estimate for the project deliverables based on the WBS. As the project progresses, there will likely be some variance between what the cost estimate was and what the actual cost is. the EAC is calculated to predict what the new estimate at completion will be.
  206. estimate to complete
    Represents how much more money is needed to complete the project work: ETC = EAC - AC.
  207. estimating publications
    Typically, a commercial reference to help the project estimator confirm and predict the accuracy of estimates. If a project manager elects to use one of these commercial databases, the estimate should include a pointer to this document for future reference and verification.
  208. faxed costs
    Costs that remain the same throughout the project.
  209. indirect costs
    These costs can be share across multiple projects that use the same resources - such as for a training room or a piece of equipment.
  210. parametric modeling
    A mathematical model based on known parameters to predict the cost of a project. The parameters in the model can vary based on the type of work being done. A parameter can be cost per cubic yard, cost per unit, and so on.
  211. planned value
    The worth of the work that should be completed by a specific time in the project schedule.
  212. risk
    an uncertain event that can have a positive or negative influence on the project's success. It can affect the project costs
  213. schedule performance index
    This reveals the efficiency of work. The closer the quotient is to 1, the better: SPI = EV/PV.
  214. Schedule variance
    The difference between the planned work and the earned work.
  215. to-complete performance index
    An earned value management formula that can forecast the likelihood of a project to achieve its goals based on what's currently happening in the project.
  216. top-down estimating
    A technique that bases the current project's estimate on the total of a similar project. A percentage of the similar project's total cost may be added to or subtracted from the total, depending on the size of the current project.
  217. variable costs
    Costs that vary, depending on the conditions within the project.
  218. variance
    The time or cost difference between what was planned and what was actually experienced.
  219. benchmarking
    A process of using prior projects internal or external to the performing organization to compare and set quality standards for processes and audits.
  220. benefit/cost analysis
    The process of determining the pros and cons of any project, process, product, or activity.
  221. checklists
    A listing of activities that workers check to ensure the work has been completed consistently; used in quality control.
  222. continuous process improvement
    A goal of quality assurance to improve the project's processes and deliverables; meshes with the project's process improvement plan, which is to improve the processes of the project.
  223. control charts
    These illustrate the performance of a project over time. They map the results of inspections against a chart. Control charts are typically used in projects or operations that have repetitive activities, such as manufacturing, testing series, or help desk functions. Upper and lower control limits indicate if values are in control or out of control.
  224. cost of conformance
    • The cost of completing the project work to satisfy the project scope and the expected level of quality.
    • Examples include training, safety measures, and quality management activities. Also know as the cost of quality.
  225. cost of nonconformance
    The cost of not completing the project with quality, including wasted time for corrective actions, rework, and wasted materials. Could also mean loss of business, loss of sales, and lawsuits. Also know as the cost of poor quality.
  226. design of experiments
    This relies on statistical "what-if" scenarios to determine which variables within a project will result in the best outcome; it can also be sued to eliminate a defect. The design of experiments approach is most often used on the product of a project, rather than on the project itself.
  227. flow chart
    A chart that illustrates how the parts of a system occur in sequence.
  228. histogram
    A bar chart; a Pareto diagram is an example of a histogram.
  229. ISO 9000
    An international standard that helps organizations follow their own quality procedures. ISO 9000 is not a quality system, but a method of following procedures created by an organization.
  230. operational definitions
    The quantifiable terms and values used to measure a process, activity, or work result. Operational definitions are also known as metrics.
  231. Pareto diagrams
    A Pareto diagram is related to Pareto's Law: 80 percent of the problems come from 20 percent of the issues (this is also known as the 80/20 rule). A Pareto diagram illustrates problems by assigned cause, from the smallest to the largest.
  232. process adjustments
    When quality is lacking, process adjustments are needed for immediate corrective actions or for future preventive actions to ensure that quality improves. Process adjustments may qualify for a change request and be funneled through the change control system as part of integration management.
  233. quality assurance
    An executing process to ensure that the project is adhering to the quality expectations of the project customer and organization. QA is a prevention-driven process to perform the project work with quality to avoid errors, waste, and delays.
  234. quality audits
    A quality audit is a process to confirm that the quality processes are performing correctly on the current project. The quality audit determines how to make things better for the project and other projects within the organization. Quality audits measure the project's ability to maintain the expected level of quality.
  235. quality control
    A process in which the work results are monitored to see if they meet relevant quality standards.
  236. quality management plan
    This document describes how the project manager and the project team will fulfill the quality policy. In an ISO 9000 environment, the quality management plan is referred to as the "project quality system."
  237. quality policy
    The formal policy an organization follows to achieve a preset standard of quality. The project team should either adapt the quality policy of the organization to guide the project implementation or create its own policy if one does not exist within the performing organization.
  238. run chart
    Similar to a control chart, a run chart tracks trends over time and displays those trends in a graph with the plotted data mapped to a specific date.
  239. scatter diagram
    Tracks the relationship between two or more variables to determine if the one variable affects the other. It allows the project team, quality control team, or project manager to make adjustments to improve the overall results of the project.
  240. statistical sampling
    A process of choosing a percentage of results at random for inspection. Statistical sampling can reduce the costs of quality control.
  241. trend analysis
    Trend analysis is taking past results to predict future performance.
  242. 360-degree appraisal
    A performance review completed by a person's peers, managers, and subordinates. It's called a 360-degree appraisal because it's a circle of reviews by people at difference levels of an organization.
  243. adjourning
    The final stage of team development; once the project is done, the team moves on to other assignments, either as a unit or the project team is disbanded and individual team members go on to other work.
  244. autocratic
    The project manager makes all of the decisions.
  245. coercive power
    The project manager uses fear and threats to manage the project team.
  246. collective bargaining agreements
    These are contractual agreements initiated by employee groups, unions, or other labor organizations; they may act as a constraint on the project.
  247. compromising
    A conflict resolution method; this approach requires both parties to give up something. The decision ultimately made is a blend of both sides of the argument. Because neither party completely wins, it is considered a lose-lose situation.
  248. democratic
    The project team is involved in the decision-making process.
  249. exceptional
    The project manager only pays attention to the top 10 percent and the bottom 10 percent of the project team performers.
  250. Expectancy theory
    People will behave on the basis of what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work.
  251. expert power
    A type of power where the authority of the project manager comes from experience with the area that the project focuses on.
  252. forcing
    A conflict resolution method where one person dominates of forces his point of view or solution to a conflict.
  253. formal power
    The type of power where the project manager has been assigned by senior management to be in charge of the project.
  254. forming
    The initial stage of team development; the project team meets and learns about their roles and responsibilities on the project.
  255. halo effect
    When one attribute of a person influences a decision.
  256. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation
    Posits that there are two catalysts for workers: hygiene agents and motivating agents. Hygiene agents do nothing to motivate, but their absence demotivates workers. Hygiene agents are the expectations that all workers have: job security, paychecks, clean and safe working conditions, a sense of belonging, civil working relationships, and other basic attributes associated with employment. Motivating agents are components such as reward, recognition, promotion, and other values that encourage individuals to succeed.
  257. human resource plan
    Defines the management of the project human resources, timing of use, and enterprise environment factors the project manager must adhere to in the organization.
  258. laissez faire
    The project manager has a hands-off policy, and the team is entirely self-led regarding the decision-making process.
  259. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    A theory that states that there are five layers of needs for all humans: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and the crowning jewel, self actualization.
  260. McClelland's Theory of Needs
    People have three needs: achievement, affiliation, and power. One of the needs drives the person's actions.
  261. norming
    Project team members go about getting the project work, begin to rely on one another, and generally complete their project assignments.
  262. organizational breakdown structure
    Though these charts are similar to the WBS, the breakdown is by department, unit or team.
  263. organizational charts
    These show how an organization, such as a company or large project team, is ordered, its reporting structures, and the flow of information.
  264. Ouichi's Theory Z
    This theory posits that workers are motivated by a sense of commitment, opportunity, and advancement. Workers will work if they are challenged and motivated.
  265. performing
    If a project team can reach the performing stage of team development, they trust one another, they work well together, and issues and problems get resolved quickly and effectively.
  266. problem solving
    The ability to determine the best resolution for a problem in a quick and efficient manner.
  267. RACI chart
    A chart that designates each team member against each project activity as Responsible, Accountable, Consult, or Inform (RACI). A RACI chart is technically a type of responsibility assignment matrix chart.
  268. referent power
    Power that is present when the project team is attracted to or wants to work on the project or with the project manager. Referent power also exists when the project manager references another, more powerful, person, such as the CEO.
  269. resource breakdown structure
    This type of chart breaks down the project by types of resources utilized on the project no matter where the resource is being utilized in the project.
  270. resource histogram
    A bar chart reflecting when individual employees, groups, or communities are involved in the project. Often used by management to see when employees are most or least active in a project.
  271. responsibility
    The person who decides what will happen in a project about a particular area.
  272. responsibility assignment matrix chart
    A chart type designating the roles and responsibilities of the project team.
  273. reward power
    The project manager's authority to reward the project team.
  274. role
    Who does what types of activities on a project.
  275. smoothing
    A conflict resolution method that "smooths" out the conflict by minimizing the perceived size of the problem. It is a temporary solution, but it can calm team relations and reduce boisterousness of discussions. Smoothing may be acceptable when time is of the essence or when any of the proposed solutions would work.
  276. staffing management plan
    This subsidiary plan documents how project team members will be brought on to the project and excused from the project. This plan is contained in the human resources plan.
  277. storming
    The second stage of team development; the project team struggles for project positions, leadership, and project direction.
  278. virtual teams
    Project teams that are not collected and that may rarely, if ever, meet face-to-face with other project team members. The virtual team relies on e-mail, video, and telephone conferences to communicate on the project.
  279. war room
    A centralized office or locale for the project manager and the project team to work on the project. It can house information on the project, including documentation and support materials. It allows the project team to work in close proximity.
  280. withdrawal
    A conflict resolution method that is used when the issue is not important or the project manager is outranked. The project manager pushes the issue aside for later resolution. It can also be used as a method for cooling down. The conflict is not resolved, and it is considered a yield-lose solution.
  281. active listening
    This occurs when the receiver confirms the message is bing recieved by feedback, questions, prompts for clarity, and other signs of having received the message.
  282. communications formula
    The formula "N(N-1)/2" shows the number of communications channels in a project. N represents the total number of stakeholders.
  283. communications management plan
    A plan that documents and organizes the stakeholder needs for communication. This plan covers the communications system, its documentation, the flow of communication, modalities of communication, schedules for communications, information retrieval, and any other stakeholder requirements for communications.
  284. decode
    This is a part of the communications model, it is the inverse of the encoder. If a message is encoded, a decoder translates it back to a usable format.
  285. effective listening
    The receiver is involved in the listening experience by paying attention to visual clues by the speaker and to paralingual intentions and by asking relevant questions.
  286. encoder
    Part of the communications model; the device or technology that packages the message to travel over the medium.
  287. feedback
    Sender confirmation of the message by asking questions, requesting a response, or other confirmation signals.
  288. forecasting
    An educated estimate of how long the project will take to complete. Can also refer to how much the project may cost to complete.
  289. issue
    Any point of contention, debate, or decision that has not yet been made in the project that may affect the project's success.
  290. issue log
    A documentation of all identified issues affecting the project. Each issue is assigned an issue owner and an ideal date for resolution, and its status is maintained thought the issue log.
  291. medium
    Part of the communications model; this is the path the message takes from the sender to the receiver. This is the modality in which the communication travels, and it typically refers to an electronic model, such as e-mail or the telephone.
  292. nonverbal
    Approximately 55 percent of oral communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language contribute to the message.
  293. paralingual
    The pitch, tone, and inflections in the sender's voice affect the message being sent.
  294. progress reports
    These provide current information on the project work completed to date.
  295. receiver
    Part of the communications model: the recipient of the message.
  296. sender
    Part of the communications model: the the person of group deliver the message to the sender.
  297. stakeholder analysis
    A process that considers and ranks the project stakeholders based on their influence, interests, and expectations of the project.
  298. stakeholder registry
    A document that defines each stakeholder, their project requirements, influence on the project, phases of interest, details on the stakeholders contributions, and their contact information for the project.
  299. status reports
    These provide current information on the project cost, budget, scope, and other relevant information.
  300. acceptance
    This is a response to a risk event, generally made when the probability of the event and/or its impact is small. It is used when mitigation, transference, and avoidance are not selected.
  301. avoidance
    this is one response to a risk event. The risk is avoided by planning a different technique to remove the risk from the project.
  302. brainstorming
    The most common approach to risk identification; it is performed by a project team to identify the risks within the project. A multidisciplinary team, hosted by a project facilitator, can also perform brainstorming.
  303. cause-and-effect diagrams
    Used for root-cause analysis of what factors are creating the risks within the project. The goal is to identify and treat the root of the problem, not the symptom.
  304. contingency reserve
    A time of dollar amount allotted as a response to risk events that may occur within a project.
  305. decision tree analysis
    A type of analysis that determines which of two decisions is the best. The decision tree assists in calculating the value of the decision and determining which decision costs the least.
  306. Delphi Technique
    A method to query experts anonymously on foreseeable risks within the project phase or component of the project. The results of the survey are analyzed and organized, and then circulated to the experts. There can be several rounds of anonymous discussions with the Delphi Technique The goal is to gain consensus on project risks, and the anonymous nature of the process ensures that no one expert's advice overtly influences the opinion of another participant.
  307. enhance
    To enhance a risk is to attempt to modify its probability and/or its impacts to realize the most gains from it.
  308. exploit
    The organization wants to ensure that the identified risk does happen to realize the positive impact associated with the risk event.
  309. influence diagram
    An influence diagram charts out a decision problem. It identifies all of the elements, variables, decisions, and objectives - and how each factor may influence each other.
  310. mitigation
    reducing the probability or impact of a risk.
  311. qualitative risk analysis
    An examination and prioritization of the risks based on their probability of occurring and the impact on the project if they do occur. Qualitative risk analysis guides the risk reaction process.
  312. quantitative risk analysis
    A numerical assessment of the probability and impact of the identified risks. Quantitative risk analysis also creates an overall risk score for the project.
  313. residual risks
    Risks that are left over after mitigation, transference, and avoidance. These are generally accepted risks. Management may elect to add contingency costs and time to account for the residual risks within the project.
  314. risk
    An unplanned event that can have a positive or negative influence on the project's success.
  315. risk categories
    These help organize, rank, and isolate risks within the project.
  316. risk management plan
    A subsidiary project plan for determining how risks will be identified, how quantitative and qualitative analyses will be completed, how risk response planning will happen, how risks will be monitored, and how ongoing risk management activities will occur throughout the project life cycle.
  317. risk owners
    The individuals or groups responsible for a risk response.
  318. risk register
    Documentation of all risk events and their conditions, impact, probability, and overall risk score.
  319. scales of probability and impact
    Used in a risk matrix in both qualitative and quantitative risk analyses to score each risk's probability and impact.
  320. secondary risk
    Risks that stem from risk responses. For example, the response of transference may call for hiring a third party to manage an identified risk. A secondary risk caused by the solution is the failure of the third party to complete its assignment as scheduled. Secondary risks must be identified, analyzed, and planned for, just like any other identified risk.
  321. sensitivity analysis
    This examines each project's risk on its own merit to assess the impact on the project. All other risks in the project are set at a baseline value.
  322. share
    Sharing is nice. When sharing, the risk ownership is transferred to the organization that can most capitalize on the risk opportunity.
  323. simulation
    This allows the project team to play "what-if" games without affecting any areas of production.
  324. system or process flow charts
    These show the relationship between components and how the overall process works. They are useful for identifying risks between system components.
  325. transference
    A response to risks in which the responsibility and ownership of the risk are transferred to another party (for example, through insurance).
  326. triggers
    Warning signs or symptoms that a risk has occurred or is about to occur (for example, a vendor failing to complete their portion of the project as scheduled).
  327. utility function
    A person's willingness to accept risk.
  328. workarounds
    Workarounds are unplanned responses to risks that were not identified or expected.
  329. bid
    A document from the seller to the buyer. Used when process is the determining factor in the decision-making process.
  330. bidder conference
    a meeting with prospective sellers to ensure that all sellers have a clear understanding of the product or service to be procured. Bidder conferences allow sellers to query the buyer on the details of the product to help ensure that the proposal the seller creates is adequate and appropriate for the proposed agreement.
  331. centralized contracting
    All contracts for all projects need to be approved through a central contracting unit within the performing organization.
  332. contract
    A legal, binding agreement, preferably written, between a buyer and the seller detailing the requirements and obligations of both parties. Must include an offer, an acceptance, and a consideration.
  333. contract administration
    The process of ensuring that the buyer and the seller both perform to the specifications within the contract.
  334. contract change control system
    Defines the procedures for how contracts nay be changed. Includes the paperwork, tracking, conditions, dispute resolution procedures, and procedures for getting the changes approved within the performing organization.
  335. contract closeout
    A process for confirming that the obligations of the contract were met as expected. The project manager, the customer, the key stakeholder, and, in some instances, the seller complete the product verification together to confirm the contract has been completed.
  336. contract file
    A complete indexed set of records of the procurement process incorporated into the administrative closure process. These records include financial information as well as information on the performance and acceptance of the procured work.
  337. cost plus award fee
    This contract requires the buyer to pay for all the project costs and give the seller an award fee based on the project performance, meeting certain project criteria, or meeting other goals established by the buyer. The award fee can be tied to any factor the buyer determines, and the factor doesn't have to be exact.
  338. cost-reimbursable contracts
    A contract that pays the seller for the product. In the payment to the seller, there is a profit margin of the difference between the actual costs of the product and the sales amount.
  339. direct costs
    Costs incurred by the project in order for it to exist. Examples include equipment needed to complete the project work, salaries of the project team, and other expenses tied directly to the project's existence.
  340. evaluation criteria
    Used to create and score proposals from sellers. In some instances, such as a bid or quite, the evaluation criteria is focused just on the price the seller offers. In other instances, such as a proposal, the evaluation criteria can be multiple values: experience, references, certifications, and more.
  341. fixed price with economic price adjustment contract
    A contract for long term projects that may span years to complete the project work. The contract does define a fixed price, with caveats for special categories of price fluctuation.
  342. fixed-price contracts
    Fixed-price contracts are also known as firm-fixed-price and lump-sum contracts. These contracts have a preset price that the vendor is obligated to perform the work for or to provide materials for the agreed-upon price.
  343. force majeure
    A powerful and unexpected event, such as a hurricane or other disaster/
  344. invitation for bid
    A document from the buyer to the seller. Requests the seller to provide a price for the procured product or service.
  345. letter of intent
    Expresses the intent of the buyer to procure the products or services from the seller. Not equivalent to a contract.
  346. make-or-buy analysis
    Used in determining what part of the project scope to make and what part to purchase.
  347. oligopoly
    A market condition where the actions of one competitor affect the actions of all the other competitors.
  348. procurement
    The process of a seller soliciting, selecting, and paying for products or services from a buyer.
  349. procurement audits
    The success and failures within the procurement process are reviewed from procurement planning through contract administration. The intent of the audit is to learn from what worked and what did not work during the procurement processes.
  350. procurement management plan
    This subsidiary project plan documents the decisions made in the procurement planning processes. It specifies how the remaining procurement activities will be managed.
  351. proposal
    A document from the seller to the buyer, responding to a request for proposal or other procurement document.
  352. qualified sellers list
    The performing organization may have lists of qualified sellers, preferred sellers, or approved sellers. The qualified sellers list generally has contact information, history of past experience with the seller, and other pertinent information.
  353. quote
    A document from the seller to the buyer; used when price is the determining factor in the decision-making process.
  354. request for proposal
    A document from the buyer to the seller that asks the seller to provide a proposal for completing the procured work or for providing the procured product.
  355. request for quote
    A document from the buyer to the seller asking the seller to provide a price for the procured product or service.
  356. should-cost estimates
    These estimates are created by the performing organization to predict what the cost of the procured product should be. If there is a significant difference between what the organization has predicted and what the sellers have proposed, the statement of work was inadequate or the sellers have misunderstood the requirements or the price is too high.
  357. single source
    A specific seller that the performing organization prefers to contract with.
  358. sole source
    The only qualified seller that exists in the marketplace.
  359. statement of work
    This fully describes the work to be completed, the product to be supplied, or both. The SOW becomes part of the contract between the buyer and the seller. It is typically created as part of the procurement planning process and is used by the seller to determine whether it can meet the project's requirements.
  360. time and materials
    A contract type where the seller charges the buyer for the time and materials for the work completed. T&M contracts should have a not-to-exceed clause (NTE) to contain costs.
  361. confidentiality
    A project manager should keep certain aspects of the project confidential; consider contract negotiations, human resource issues, and trade secrets of the organization.
  362. conflict of interest
    A situation where the project manager could influence a decision for personal gain.
  363. culture shock
    The initial reaction a person experiences when in a foreign environment.
  364. ethics
    Describes the personal, cultural, and organizational interpretation of right and wrong; project managers are to operation ethically and fairly.
  365. ethnocentrism
    Happens when individuals measure and compare a foreigner's actions against their own local culture. the locals typically believe their own culture is superior to the foreigner's culture.
  366. inappropriate compensation
    the project manager is to avoid in appropriate compensation, such as bribes. The project manager is to act in the best interest of the project and the organization.
  367. PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
    A PMI document that defines the expectations of its members to act responsibly, respectfully, fairly, and honestly in their leadership of projects and programs.
  368. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    A theory that suggest there's a linkage between the language a person (or culture) speaks and how that person or culture behaves in the world.