OB_CH15

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OB_CH15
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2012-08-10 00:53:03
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Organizational Behavior Chapter 15
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Organizational Behavior Chapter 15
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  1. Many organizations and subunits within them use this to help members identify with the culture, attest to their acceptance of it, and help preserve it.
    Language
  2. these are objects that serve as signals of organization’s culture, including the size of offices, executive perks, and attire.
    Material Symbols
  3. These are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization—what goals are most important, which people are important, and which people are expendable.
    Rituals
  4. Culture is transmitted to employees in a number of forms, the most potent being these?
    stories, rituals, material symbols, and language
  5. These anchor the present in the past and explain and legitimate current practices.
    Stories
  6. Three forces play a particularly important part in sustaining a culture: 
    selection practices, the actions of top management, and socialization methods.
  7. The explicit goal of the _______ process is to identify and hire individuals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform successfully.
    selection
  8. The actions of ______ also have a major impact on the organization’s culture. Through words and behavior,_______ establish norms that filter through the organization about, for instance, whether risk taking is desirable, how much freedom  should give employees, what is appropriate dress, and what actions pay off in terms of pay raises, promotions, and other rewards.
    Top Level Management
  9. The process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing culture is ___________.
    Socialization
  10. We can think of socialization as a process with three stages: 
    prearrival, encounter, and metamorphosis.
  11. The ________ stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of values, attitudes, and expectations about both the work to be done and the organization.
    prearrival stage
  12. No matter how well managers think they can socialize newcomers, however, the most important predictor of future behavior is ___________.
    past behavior.
  13.  the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
    Encounter stage
  14. The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization.
    Metamorphosis stage
  15. Most research suggests high levels of ______ encourage person–organization fit and high levels of commitment.
     institutional practices 
  16. Most research suggests high levels of ______________ produce more role innovation.
    individual practices 
  17. These practices are common in police departments, fire departments, and other organizations that value rule following and order.
    institutional practices 
  18. Programs that are informal, individual, random, variable, and disjunctive and emphasize investiture are more likely to give newcomers innovative sense of their role and methods of working. Creative fields, such as research and development, advertising, and filmmaking, rely on these practices.
    Individual Practices.
  19. potentially dysfunctional aspects of culture, especially a strong one, on an organization’s effectiveness are?
    Institutionalization, Barriers to Change, Barriers to Diversity, Barriers to Mergers and Acquisitions.
  20. Organizational climate is what?
    The shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment.
  21. Culture’s Functions
     First, culture has a boundary-defining role: it creates distinctions between one organization and others. Second, it conveys a sense of identity for organization members. Third, culture facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than individual self-interest. Fourth, it enhances the stability of the social system. Culture is the social glue that helps hold the organization together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do. Finally, it is a sense-making and control mechanism that guides and shapes employees’ attitudes and behavior. This last function is of particular interest to us. Culture defines the rules of the game.
  22. Therefore, we should view formalization and culture as two different roads to a common destination.  Why?
    high formalization creates predictability, orderliness, and consistency. A strong culture achieves the same end without the need for written documentation.
  23. Does a Strong Culture Increase or Reduce Employee Turnover?
    A strong culture should reduce employee turnover, because it demonstrates high agreement about what the organization represents.
  24. What are Subcultures?
    Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.
  25. What is the difference between Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction?
    organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative.
  26. What is Organizational Culture?
    Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
  27. Innovation and risk taking.
    The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks..
  28. Attention to detail. 
    The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
  29. Outcome orientation. 
    The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them.
  30. People orientation
    The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
  31. Team orientation. 
    The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
  32. Aggressiveness. 
    The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.
  33. Stability
    The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.

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