Intro to Logic

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
165523
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Intro to Logic
Updated:
2012-08-10 01:41:05
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CTC Logic
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Intro to Logic Test 1
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  1. Identify the premises and conclusions in each of the
    following arguments by putting the
    argument in standard form.
    1. The Lakers almost didn’t beat the Kings. They’ll never get past Dallas. 
    • 1. The Lakers almost didn’t beat the Kings.
    • therefore they'll never get past Dallas
  2. 2. If the butler had done it, he could not have locked the screen door. Therefore, since the door was locked, we know the butler is in the clear.
    • 1. If the butler had done it, he could not have locked the
    • screen door.
    • 2. The door was locked.
    • therefore we know the butler is in the clear

    • Notice how the last sentence combines both the conclusion
    • and a premise. These need to be separated when putting into standard form. And
    • also notice how I removed the premise indicator “since,” since the word “since”
    • is not strictly speaking part of the premise 
  3. 3. Moscone will never make it into the state police. They have a weight limit, and he’s over it.
    1. The state police have a weight limit. 

    Notice how I changed the “they” into “state police.” Strictly speaking, each statement in standard form should makes sense all by itself in the sense that it should not contain pronounces like “he” “she” or “it” that refer to other premises

    2. Moscone is over the weight limit

    • Notice how I replaced the pronoun “he” with Moscone.
    • therefore Moscone will never make it into the state police. 
  4. 4. Let’s see . . .since the clunk comes only when I pedal, the problem must be in the chain, the crank, or the pedals.
    1. The clunk comes only when I pedal.

    • Notice I removed the filler word “Let’s see” and removed the indicator word “since.”
    • Therefore the problem must be in the chain, the crank, or
    • the pedals.
  5. 5. Chances are I’ll be carded at JJ’s, since Kera, Sherry, and Bobby were all carded there, and they all look as though they’re about thirty. 
    • 1. Kera, Sherry, and Bobby were all carded there.
    • 2. Kera, Sherry, and Bobby all look as though they’re about
    • thirty.
    • Notice how I broke up the second part of the first sentence into two premises and eliminated pronouns
    • 3. I look age thirty or younger.
    • The above is the implicit premise
    • Therefore, I’ll be carded at JJ’s. 
  6. 6. When blue jays are breeding, they become aggressive. Consequently, scrub jays, which are very similar to blue jays, can also be expected to be aggressive when they’re breeding.
    • 1. When blue jays are breeding, they become aggressive. 
    • The pronoun “they” here is acceptable, because it doesn’t refer to another premise.
    • 2. Scrub jays are very similar to blue jays.
    • There fore scrub jays are aggressive when they’re breeding. (“Can be expected to be” is not strictly speaking part of the conclusion.)
    • Notice how the second sentence contains both a premise and a conclusion.
    • 1. When blue jays are breeding, they become aggressive.
    • 2. Scrub jays are very similar to blue jays.
    • Therefore scrub jays are aggressive when they’re breeding. 

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