session1, part2. carrier ethernet and Ethernet Transport Fundamentals

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piwi2024
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session1, part2. carrier ethernet and Ethernet Transport Fundamentals
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2012-08-11 01:17:11
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Ethernet Transport Fundamentals carrier ip
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session1, part2. carrier ethernet and Ethernet Transport Fundamentals
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  1. Why is Carrier Ethernet important in Next Generation networks?

    A. Enables the convergence of IP services
    B. Enables Ethernet to be deployed in large complex networks
    C. Enables Carriers to deploy networks in large offices
    B. Enables Ethernet to be deployed in large complex networks
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What are the two reasons why operators prefer to deploy Ethernet in Next Generation networks? (Choose 2)

    A. Ethernet is easy to maintain
    B. Ethernet has high bandwidth capabilities
    C. Ethernet is a low cost solution compared to other technologies
    D. Ethernet has carrier-grade features built in
    • B. Ethernet has high bandwidth capabilities
    • C. Ethernet is a low cost solution compared to other technologies
  3. Which three statements make Carrier Ethernet different from LAN-based Ethernet? (Choose 3)

    A. Ethernet service management
    B. Supports 10 Gigabit per second interfaces
    C. Supports large networks that spans metro, national, and international 
    D. Standardized services
    • A. Ethernet service management
    • C. Supports large networks that spans metro, national, and international 
    • D. Standardized services
  4. What are two definitions for Carrier Ethernet?

    A. A set of packets transported over the newtork
    B. A set of standardized services transported over the network
    C. A set of operators maintaining the Ethernet network
    D. A set of network elements that make up the Ethernet Transport
    • B. A set of standardized services transported over the network
    • D. A set of network elements that make up the Ethernet Transport
  5. What three statements are true about the Metro Ethernet Forum?

    A. Provides a certification program to ensure interoperability of networks and services
    B. Provides Metro Ethernet services
    C. Global alliance of Service Providers and network vendors
    D. Organization defining Carrier Ethernet networks and services
    • A. Provides a certification program to ensure interoperability of networks and services
    • C. Global alliance of Service Providers and network vendors
    • D. Organization defining Carrier Ethernet networks and services
  6. What are two reasons why Ethernet OAM (Operations and Maintenance) is needed? (Choose 2)

    A. It is difficult to manage Ethernet over multiple user domains
    B. Customer needs a way to manage end to end connectivity
    C. It is difficult to manage Ethernet over multiple operator
    domains
    D. Provider needs a way to manage end to end connectivity
    • C. It is difficult to manage Ethernet over multiple operatordomains
    • D. Provider needs a way to manage end to end connectivity
  7. What three standardized services are defined?

    A. E-LAN
    B. E-Tree
    C. E-Trunk
    D. E-Line
    • A. E-LAN
    • B. E-Tree
    • D. E-Line
  8. What are three examples deployments where Carrier Ethenet is applied?

    A. Mobile Backhaul
    B. Local office network
    C. Data Center point to point E-Line connection
    D. Triple Play Backhaul
    • A. Mobile Backhaul
    • C. Data Center point to point E-Line connection
    • D. Triple Play Backhaul
  9. What protocol is used to address the scalability fo Carrier Network - Mac address Tables?

    A. 802.1qay
    B. CSMA/CD
    C. 802.21ah
    D. 802.1q
    C. 802.21ah

    Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB, known as "mac-in-mac") is a set of architecture and protocols for routing over a provider's network allowing interconnection of multiple Provider Bridge Networks without losing each customer's individually defined VLANs.

    The idea of PBB is to offer complete separation of customer and provider domains. For this purpose, a new Ethernet header has been defined.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following is true regarding an Ethernet Spanning Tree?

    A. It loops frame in order to add redundance to the network
    B. It is used to separate VLANs
    C. It causes broadcasts to be eliminated entirely
    D. There is only one active patch between any two points
    D. There is only one active patch between any two points

    The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged Ethernet local area network. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation that results from them. Spanning tree also allows a network design to include spare (redundant) links to provide automatic backup paths if an active link fails, without the danger of bridge loops, or the need for manual enabling/disabling of these backup links.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What is the name of the messages Ethernet Switches running Spanning Tree Protocol send to each other?

    A. ISL
    B. Root Message
    C. BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
    D. BID
    C. BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)

    A bridge sends a BPDU frame using the unique MAC address of the port itself as a source address, and a destination address of the STP multicast address 01:80:C2:00:00:00.

    There are three types of BPDUs:
    Configuration BPDU (CBPDU), used for Spanning Tree computation
    Topology Change Notification (TCN) BPDU, used to announce changes in the network topology
    Topology Change Notification Acknowledgment (TCA)

    BPDUs are exchanged regularly (every 2 seconds by default) and enable switches to keep track of network changes and to start and stop forwarding at ports as required.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following are Spanning Tree Protocol Port Roles?

    A. LACP Port
    B. Dedicated Port
    C. Listening Port
    D. Root Port
    D. Root Port

    The bridges have to determine the root bridge and compute the port roles (root, designated, or blocked) with only the information that they have. To ensure that each bridge has enough information, the bridges use special data frames called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) to exchange information about bridge IDs and root path costs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What protocol is used for connection oriented Ethernet Traffic Engineering?

    A. 802.2
    B. 802.11
    C. 802.1d
    D. 802.1qay
    D. 802.1qay

    Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) is an approved telecommunications networking standard, IEEE 802.1Qay-2009.PBB-TE adapts Ethernet technology to carrier class transport networks. It is based on the layered VLAN tags and MAC-in-MAC encapsulation defined in IEEE 802.1ah (Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB)), but it differs from PBB in eliminating flooding, dynamically created forwarding tables, and spanning tree protocols.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. If a Carrier Network used 802.1q it would be limited to how many VLANS

    A. No Limit
    B. 1000 VLANs in total
    C. 4096 in total
    D. 4096 Services with 4096 VLANs per Service
    C. 4096 in total

    IEEE 802.1Q is the networking standard that supports Virtual LANs (VLANs) on an Ethernet network. The standard defines a system of VLAN tagging for Ethernet frames and the accompanying procedures to be used by bridges and switches in handling such frames. The standard also contains provisions for a quality of service prioritization scheme commonly known as IEEE 802.1p and defines the Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following conditions are NOT required, for links to successfully be aggregated?

    A. Spanning Tree Disabled
    B. Point to Point
    C. Full Duplex
    D. Same Speed
    A. Spanning Tree Disabled
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Bridges and Switches increase the number of collision domains in a network.

    A. TRUE
    B. FALSE
    A. TRUE
  17. When the Ethernet Ring Protection topology changes what message is sent out to all switches by the Master?

    A. Link Fail Message
    B. Root Election BPDU
    C. ARP
    D. Flush FDB Message
    D. Flush FDB Message

    Ethernet Ring Protection Switching, or ERPS, is an effort at ITU-T under G.8032 Recommendation to provide sub-50ms protection and recovery switching for Ethernet traffic in aring topology and at the same time ensuring that there are no loops formed at the Ethernet layer. G.8032v1 supported a single ring topology and G.8032v2 supports multiple rings/ladder topology.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. How many bits are there in an Ethernet address?

    A. 48
    B. 32
    C. 64
    D. 24
    A. 48

    A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. In an Ethenet Ring Protection Topology what switch has a primary and secondary port?

    A. Root
    B. Master
    C. Designated Switch
    D. Trunk
    B. Master
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following OSI Layers does Ethernet operate on?

    A. Network
    B. Data Link
    C. Presentation
    D. Application
    E .Session
    B. Data Link

    The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. 
    Practical, connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification, which is the ancestor of IEEE 802.3. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium, which is the function of a media access control (MAC) sublayer. Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer, which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. A host connected directly to Hub operates in which mode?

    A. Half Duplex
    B. Backoff Priority mode
    C. MIMO
    D. Full Duplex
    A. Half Duplex

    A hub works at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model.[1] The device is a form of multiport repeater. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following are advantages of Link aggregation? (Choose two)

    A. Improved STP convergence time
    B. Reduced size of switch MAC table
    C. Redundancy
    D. Increased Bandwidth
    • C. Redundancy
    • D. Increased Bandwidth

    Link aggregation is a computer networking term to describe various methods of combining (aggregating) multiple network connections in parallel to increase throughput beyond what a single connection could sustain, and to provideredundancy in case one of the links fails.
  23. RSTP includes two port roles not defined in STP. Which of the following is one of them?

    A. Designated
    B. Alternate
    C. Dedicated
    D. Root
    C. Dedicated

    Rapid Spanning Tree Operation
    RSTP adds new bridge port roles in order to speed convergence following a link failure.

    RSTP bridge port roles:
    Root - A forwarding port that is the best port from Nonroot-bridge to Rootbridge
    Designated - A forwarding port for every LAN segment
    Alternate - An alternate path to the root bridge. This path is different than using the root port.
    Backup - A backup/redundant path to a segment where another bridge port already connects.
    Disabled - Not strictly part of STP, a network administrator can manually disable a port
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which of the following are STP states in which MAC addresses are NOT learned?

    A. Learning
    B. Listening
    C. Forward
    D. Loading
    B. Listening

    STP switch port states:
    Blocking - A port that would cause a switching loop, no user data is sent or received but it may go into forwarding mode if the other links in use were to fail and the spanning tree algorithm determines the port may transition to the forwarding state. BPDU data is still received in blocking state. Prevents the use of looped paths.
    Listening - The switch processes BPDUs and awaits possible new information that would cause it to return to the blocking state. It does not populate the MAC address table and it does not forward frames.
    Learning - While the port does not yet forward frames it does learn source addresses from frames received and adds them to the filtering database (switching database). It populates the MAC Address table, but does not forward frames.
    Forwarding - A port receiving and sending data, normal operation. STP still monitors incoming BPDUs that would indicate it should return to the blocking state to prevent a loop.
    Disabled - Not strictly part of STP, a network administrator can manually disable a port
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Where can the 802.1q tag be found in an Ethernet frame?

    A. Before the Destination address
    B. After the Carried Data
    C. Between the Source Address and type field
    D. After the type field and before the carried data
    C. Between the Source Address and type field

    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What is the name of the protocol for negotiating the aggregation of Ethernet links?

    A. STP
    B. LACP
    C. 802.1q
    D. 802.1ah
    B. LACP

    Within the IEEE specification the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) provides a method to control the bundling of several physical ports together to form a single logical channel. LACP allows a network device to negotiate an automatic bundling of links by sending LACP packets to the peer (directly connected device that also implements LACP).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following does not exist in a modern network using switches rather than hubs?

    A. VLANs
    B. Collisions
    C. Broadcasts
    D. Bridging Table
    B. Collisions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Typically switches process frames

    A. in hardware
    B. in software
    A. in hardware
  29. Bridges process frames

    A. in hardware
    B. in software
    B. in software
  30. What field in an Ethernet header comes between the destination address and the Type Field?

    A. Source Address
    B. FCS
    C. Time To Live
    D. Type of Service
    A. Source Address

    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Why are loops more of a problem for Ethernet than for IP?

    A. Ethernet does not use a spanning tree protocol
    B. Ethernet networks are larger and contain more redundancy
    C. Ethernet doesn't use logical addressing
    D. Ethernet has no Time To Live Field
    D. Ethernet has no Time To Live Field

    Ethernet frame:

    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following Port states apply to Spanning Tree Protocol but not to Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol?

    A. Forward
    B. Listening
    C. Blocking
    D. Learning
    B. Listening

    STP switch port states:
    Blocking - A port that would cause a switching loop, no user data is sent or received but it may go into forwarding mode if the other links in use were to fail and the spanning tree algorithm determines the port may transition to the forwarding state. BPDU data is still received in blocking state. Prevents the use of looped paths.
    Listening - The switch processes BPDUs and awaits possible new information that would cause it to return to the blocking state. It does not populate the MAC address table and it does not forward frames.
    Learning - While the port does not yet forward frames it does learn source addresses from frames received and adds them to the filtering database (switching database). It populates the MAC Address table, but does not forward frames.
    Forwarding - A port receiving and sending data, normal operation. STP still monitors incoming BPDUs that would indicate it should return to the blocking state to prevent a loop.
    Disabled - Not strictly part of STP, a network administrator can manually disable a port

    RSTP:
    As of RSTP, the protocol now includes not only states (learning, forwarding and discarding) and roles (designated, root, alternate, backup (and master for MST)).
    Basically, the state have been simplified: listening and blocking are now just "discarding". These three mean exactly the same from an operational point of view. It's just that we kept the old naming in our implementation. So you can still see the difference between listening and blocking, which is of little use in fact
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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