EH 6-7

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Author:
aquayoshi
ID:
165532
Filename:
EH 6-7
Updated:
2012-08-10 04:03:37
Tags:
Embryology
Folders:

Description:
Embryology
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  1. Prenatal Development:  Three time periods
    • 1. Pre-embryonic -> up to 3.5 wks (Implanting germ layers)
    • 2. Embryonic -> 3.5-9 wks (Organogenisis) 
    • 3. Fetal -> 9-38 wks (Growth: Length & Wt)
  2. Definition:  Teratology
    The study of abnormal embryogenesis and it's causes.
  3. Definition- Teratogen:
    Anything that induces or increases the incidence of congenital malformations
  4. Classifications of teratogens:
    • 1. Infectious agents
    • 2. Physical agents
    • 3. Chemcal agents
    • 4. Hormones
    • 5. Maternal health
  5. Prenatal period most susceptible to teratogens:
    Organogenesis
  6. Pre-embryonic Period
    Duration:
    Major events/characteristics:
    Susceptibility to teratogens:
    • Duration: Fertilization through 3.5 wks
    • Major events/characteristics: Gastrulation/ body folding -> there can be spontaneous abortions!
    • Susceptibility to teratogens: Low
  7. Embryonic Period
    Duration:
    Major events/characteristics:
    Susceptibility to teratogens:
    • Duration: 3.5 wks -> 9th wk
    • Major events/characteristics: Organogenesis - complete gastrulation and body folding
    • Susceptibility to teratogens: High-most susceptible
  8. Fetal Period:
    Duration:
    Major events/characteristics:
    Susceptibility to teratogens
    • Duration: 9th wk -> birth
    • Major events/characteristics: growth & maturation of organ systems
    • Susceptibility to teratogens: Less susceptible
  9. Methods of age measurement:
    • Age measurement:  
    • Crown to Rump Length (CRL):  7-14 wks
    • Biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference, femur length: 16-30 wks
  10. Fetal Period
    29th Week to 20th Week (5 months)
    Major events/characteristics:
    Major events/characteristics: Swallows, respiratory movements, gender detectable, fetal movements, primary centers of ossification.
  11. 6 months to birth
    Major events/characteristics:
    Surfactant:
    • Major events/characteristics: wt increases
    • Surfactant: (coats alveoli) helps lungs to inflate after birth -> very important! Can detect lung maturity with lecithin/spingomyelin ration (L/S)
  12. Length of Pregnancy
    From fertilization:
    From Last Menstrual Period (LMP):

    Full term birth:
    Premature birth:
    Postmature birth:
    • From fertilization: 38
    • From Last Menstrual Period (LMP): 40

    • Full term birth: 38 -> 40 wks
    • Premature birth: < 38 wks
    • Postmature birth: > 40 wks
  13. Birth Weight:
    Normal
    Low birth weight:
    • Normal: 3200 g
    • Low birth weight: < 2500 g
  14. Definition:  IUGR
    Effects on fetus:
    Possible causes:
    • IUGR: In Utero Growth Retardation
    • Effects on fetus: neurological deficiencies, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia
    • Possible causes: teratogens, placenta issues
  15. Amnion, Amniotic Cavity and Fluid   
    Formation of Amniotic Cavity-
    Start (Week):
    Completed (Week):
    • Start (Week): 
    • Completed (Week):
  16. Amnion:
    Amnion: Amnioblasts + extra embryonic mesoderm
  17. Chorion:
    Chorion: Extraembryonic mesoderm + cytroblasts + syncytiotrophoblasts
  18. Amniochorionic membrane:
    Amniochorionic membrane: Fusion of the amnion and chorion at about 12 weeks.
  19. Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS):
    Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS): Rupture of the amnion (amniochorionic membrane) that creates chords or bands that can encircle and constrict fetal body parts.
  20. Amniotic fluid
    Amniotic Fluid Functions:
    Amniotic Fluid Functions: Cushions and prevents sticking, allows movement (muscular and respiratory), barrier to infections, helps control body temp., helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance

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