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What are the s/s of PMS for adolescents?
- breasts develop
- redistribution of fat
- hair growth
- mood swings
- menarche- usually 10-14 yrs old
What are the s/s of PMS for adults and when do they occur?
- wt gain
- breat enlargement and tenderness
- swelling of hands and feet
- social withdrawal
- *They occur 1-10 days prior to menses
How can you dx PMS?
- eliminate other causes
What are some things that can treat PMS?
- pain control
- treat anxiety/dpression
- OTC meds
What is the menstrual cycle?
My mnemonic: (yea, I know, a little random lol)
- Increased FSH
- Ovarian follicle releases estrogen
- Ovum begins to mature
- Thickening of endometrium
- Decreased FSH
- LH increased
- Ovulation occurs and corpus luteum forms
- Progesterone released by corpus luteum
- Lining of uterus thickens and proliferates
- Ovum dies, corpus luteum degenerates (if no fertilation occurs)
- Decreased estrogen and decreased progesterone
- Endometrium degenerates and menses begins
What is the menstrual disorder that is described as difficult or painful menstruation?
What are the s/s of dysmenorrhea?
- low abd cramping
- aching in lower back/pelvic region
- emotional instability
How would you diagnose dysmenorrhea?
pelvic exam to eliminate secondary cause
What is the tx for dysmenorrhea?
- treat symptoms
- if secondary, treat cause/disease
What is the menstrual disorder that is described as an absence of menstrual flow?
What are some causes of amenorrhea?
- endocrine dysfuntion
- decreased body fat
- emotional problems/stress
How would you diagnose amenorrhea?
- hormone levels
When is amenorrhea a normal occurence?
What is described as a cessation of menses? How long should it be absent?
What age does menopause usually occur?
40-55; may happen as early as 35, avg 52 years old
What are some s/s of menopause?
- decreased/irregular menses
- hot flashes
What is the menstrual disorder that is described as irregular bleeding at a time other than menses?
What are the s/s of metrorrhagia?
pink to brown spotting to frank bleeding
When is the best time to perform a self-breast exam?
monthly 1 week after menses
Prior to a pap smear or pelvic exam, what should you teach the patient?
do not douche, no sex, no tampons, do not apply vaginal prep for at least 48 hours before the exam
What is the common postition for gynocological procedures?
What is the procedure called that is used to sterilize a male?
What should you teach a pt who has had a vasectomy?
- impotency may occur
- sperm may be present in ejaculatory fluid for 6 weeks, so use another form of birth control until sperm count is zero.
When should a woman should have a mammogram?
- at age 40 as a baseline, then every 1-2 years
- at age 50, every year
What is the exam that allows visual inspection of the vagina and cervix, as well as sampling of mucous, discharge, cells, and exudates?
How would you establish a rappor with a pt?
- explain the procedure
- provide privacy for changing into gown
- remain with pt
- acknowledge embarrassment and allow pt to verbalize, explore feelings
What is the implantation of the fertilized ovum anywhere outside of the uterine cavity? Where does this most commonly happen?
ectopic pregnancy; fallopian tube
What is a complication of an ectopic pregnancy?
What are the nursing interventions for a woman with an ectopic pregnancy?
- monitor s/s
- emotional support
- answer questions
What gland are the male and female hormones influenced by?
anterior pituitary gland
What is the common recommended for treating cancer of the female reproductive system that?
Which hysterectomy involves removing the ovaries, oviducts, lymph nodes and lymph channels along with the uterus and cervix?
Which hysterectomy involves removing the uterus and the cervix?
What type of mastectomy removes the entire breast and axillary nodes?
simple or total mastectomy
Which type of mastectomy removes the breast, axillary lymph nodes, and lining over the chest wall muscle?
modified radical mastectomy
Which type of mastectomy removes the breast, axillary lymph nodes, lining over the chest wall muscle AND chest wall muscle under the breast?
STI: bacterial infection, AKA "GC" or "the clap"
- s/s: men- urethritis, dysuria, purulent d/c from urethra, swelling of penis, proctitis
- s/s: women- often mild/none, slight purulent vaginal d/c, vague feeling of fullness in pelvis, discomfort or aching of abdomen, if bladder involved- burning, frequency/urgency
STI: gains entry into the body through the mucous membranes or skin during sexual intercourse; called "the great imitator" because many of s/s are indistinguishable from other diseases.
- s/s: primary stage- a single sore called a chancre; may last 3-6 weeks and heals w/o tx, but w/o tx, it will advance to the secondary stage; skin rash/mucous membrane lesions. Late stage- organ damage
- tx: easy to cure in early stages; (Penicillin)
STI: most frequently reported of all STIs caused by bacterium; damages reproductive organs; can happen silently.
- s/s: painful/difficult urination, vaginal d/c,...
STI: AKA condylomata acuminata; caused by HPV and can lead to cervical cancer
- genital warts
- s/s: soft, moist, flesh colored bumps on the genitals that may appear weeks to months after infection
- tx: creams, acids, laser, cryotherapy...
STI: caused by protozoa; can be transferred by toilet seats and towels
- s/s: malodorous, copious, frothy thick or thin, white to yellow-green/gray d/c, inflamed vagina, cervical erosions, cervical bleeding, prostatitis, urethritis, reversible sterility
- tx: metronidazole
STI: most often found on the labia, anus, clitoris, vagina, cervix, prepuce, glans penis, or shaft of the penis
- s/s: tender genital ulcers, lymphadenopathy and tender buboes after primary lesion, dysprunia, dysuria, pain
- tx: abstain from sex until all lesions healed, antibiotics
What are some s/s of HBV?
jaundice, anorexia, fever, GI upset, inflamed liver
What is described as itching of the perineum? What can it be caused by?
- perineal pruritus
- deficiency of vitamin A or irritating vaginal d/c, ...
What is an opening or passageway between two organs or structures?
What can a vaginal fistula be caused by?
breakdown of tissue by CA, radiation, and damage from delivery
What occures when support between the vagina and bladder is weakened? What can it cause/lead to?
- complete emptying of the bladder difficult; UTI
- stress incontinence
What occurs when a muscular weakness occurs between the rectum and vagina and can result in not being able to completely empty the rectum?
What part of the male anatomy secretes an alkaline substance into the semen to counteract vaginal and urethral acidity?
What is the term for "undescended testes"?
can cause renal failure and thrombocytopenia
treats yeast, vaginal infection
s/e: hepatotoxicity, decreased potassium
c/e: hx of MI, clots, embolisms
s/e: migraines, Raynaud's, cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism
c/i: breast/genital cancer
s/e: pumonary embolism, cervical erosions...
withdrawl bleeding 3-7 days after d/c
treats prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids
s/e: stroke, personality disorder, mood swings, decreased testicle size, body odor
stains baby's teeth
treats benign prostatic hyperplasia and male baldness
do not use in women
s/e: decreased libido, erectile disfunction, decreased volume of ejaculate
*risk to male fetuses, females should avoid male's semen
don't use in women
s/e: h/a, sudden death, MI, priapism
notify MD about vision/hearing loss
1 hr before activity
needed for normal fetal development
s/e: rash, difficulty sleeping, seizures, more yellow urine
treats erectile dysfunction
c/i: stroke, nitrates, heart failure within 6 months, MI within 90 days
not for women
concurrent use: life-threatening HTN
administer 30 min before activity
What is a fluid filled cyst between the testes and tunica vaginalis?
What is the term for varicosity of the spermatic vein?
What is the term for a persistent irritation of the glans penis, usually secondary to bacterial infecction?
The _____ pelvis is the narrow part below the pelvic brim; it has an inlet and outlet.
The _____ pelvis is the broad, expanded portion above the pelvic brim.
What is the triangular pubic hair pattern from the upper portion of the pubic bone to the lateral areas of the labia majora?
What is described as the presence of normal endometrial tissue in sites outside the endometrial cavity?