transfers part of one molecule to another: X-Y + Z <-> X + Y-Z
cleavage of bonds with the addition of water; cleaves C-O, C-C, C-N , etc. The donor group is transferred to water.
cleaves C-O, C-C, C-N leaving double bonds or adding groups to double bonds
(epimerase, racemase, mutase)
changes geometric or spatial configuration of a molecule
ligase or synthetase
uses the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a high energy bond (ATP) to join 2 molecules
adds a phosphate group (PO3) to a molecule; generally obtains the phosphate from ATP
removes a phosphate group from a molecule
identify sugars (general structure)
general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more.
The open-chain form of a monosaccharide often coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon (C=O) and hydroxyl group (-OH) react forming a hemiacetal with a new C-O-C bridge.
Monosaccharides are classified according to three different characteristics: the placement of its carbonyl group, the number ofcarbon atoms it contains, and its chiral handedness.
If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is a ketose.
For example, glucose is an aldohexose (a six-carbon aldehyde), ribose is an aldopentose (a five-carbon aldehyde), and fructose is a ketohexose (a six-carbon ketone).
The assignment of D or L is made according to the orientation of the asymmetric carbon furthest from the carbonyl group: in a standard Fischer projection if the hydroxyl group is on the right the molecule is a D sugar, otherwise it is an L sugar.
glucose linkages: 1-4 vs. 1-6
1-4: linear - can be broken by salivary & pancreatic amylase
fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated)
A cis configuration means that adjacent hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. The more double bonds the chain has in the cis configuration, the less flexibility it has.
A trans configuration, by contrast, means that the next two hydrogen atoms are bound to opposite sides of the double bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids
There are two series of essential fatty acids: one has a double bond three carbon atoms from the methyl end; the other has a double bond six carbon atoms from the methyl end. Humans lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10, as counted from the carboxylic acid side.
Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). They are widely distributed in plant oils. The human body has a limited ability to convert ALA into the longer-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) anddocosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can also be obtained from fish.
Saturated fatty acid usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms.Examples of Saturated Fatty Acids
Lauric Acid 12:0
Palmitic acid 16:0
Stearic acid 18:0
amino acids: basic, acidic, neutral, peptide
sterol ring structure
(during the course you should note differences and similarities between cholesterol, bile acids, cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D )
differences between polar (water-soluble; hydrophilic) and non-polar compounds (lipid soluble; hydrophobic)
Enzyme reactions: substrate, binding affinity, reactant, precursor, product, Km, Vmax
Hormone, ligand, receptor
Cell differentiation, mitogen, mitogenesis
in vivo, in vitro
Organelles and major function of each:
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)