NUTR600 Preliminary Review

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jsohl
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NUTR600 Preliminary Review
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2012-08-10 12:46:46
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NUTR600 Preliminary Review
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NUTR600 Preliminary Review
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  1. oxidoreductase
    oxidation-reduction reaction
  2. dehydrogenase
    • transfers electrons and hydrogens from donor
    • to another molecule

    (alcohol + NAD+ -->  aldehyde + NADH + H+)
  3. oxidase
    • transfers electrons and hydrogens from donor
    • to oxygen ( ->H2O2)
  4. transferase
    transfers part of one molecule to another:  X-Y + Z <-> X + Y-Z
  5. hydrolase
    cleavage of bonds with the addition of water; cleaves C-O, C-C, C-N , etc.  The donor group is transferred to water.
  6. lyase
    cleaves C-O, C-C, C-N leaving double bonds or adding groups to double bonds
  7. isomerase
    • (epimerase, racemase, mutase)
    • changes geometric or spatial configuration of a molecule
  8. ligase or synthetase
    uses the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a high energy bond (ATP) to join 2 molecules
  9. kinase
    adds a phosphate group (PO3) to a molecule; generally obtains the phosphate from ATP
  10. phosphatase
    removes a phosphate group from a molecule
  11. identify sugars (general structure)
    general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more.

    The open-chain form of a monosaccharide often coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon (C=O) and hydroxyl group (-OH) react forming a hemiacetal with a new C-O-C bridge.

    • Monosaccharides are classified according to three different characteristics: the placement of its carbonyl group, the number ofcarbon atoms it contains, and its chiral handedness.
    • If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is a ketose.
    • For example, glucose is an aldohexose (a six-carbon aldehyde), ribose is an aldopentose (a five-carbon aldehyde), and fructose is a ketohexose (a six-carbon ketone).
    • The assignment of D or L is made according to the orientation of the asymmetric carbon furthest from the carbonyl group: in a standard Fischer projection if the hydroxyl group is on the right the molecule is a D sugar, otherwise it is an L sugar.
  12. glucose linkages: 1-4 vs. 1-6
    • 1-4: linear - can be broken by salivary & pancreatic amylase
    • 1-6: branching
  13. fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated)
    • A cis configuration means that adjacent hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. The more double bonds the chain has in the cis configuration, the less flexibility it has.
    • A trans configuration, by contrast, means that the next two hydrogen atoms are bound to opposite sides of the double bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids
    • Examples of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Palmitoleic acid CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, cis-Δ9, 16:1, n−7
    • Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, cis-Δ9, 18:1n−9
    • Linoleic Acid, CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, cis,cis-Δ9,Δ12, 18:2, n−6
    • Linolenic acid, CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, cis,cis,cis-Δ9,Δ12,Δ15, 18:3, n−3
    • Arachidonic acid  20:4, n−6
    • Eicosapentaenoic acid  20:5, n−3
    • Docosahexaenoic acid 22:6, n−3
    • There are two series of essential fatty acids: one has a double bond three carbon atoms from the methyl end; the other has a double bond six carbon atoms  from the methyl end. Humans lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10, as counted from the carboxylic acid side.
    • Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). They are widely distributed in plant oils. The human body has a limited ability to convert ALA into the longer-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) anddocosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can also be obtained from fish.
    • Saturated fatty acid usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms.Examples of Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Lauric Acid 12:0
    • Palmitic acid 16:0
    • Stearic acid 18:0
  14. triacylglycerol, phospholipid
  15. amino acids: basic, acidic, neutral, peptide
    bond
  16. sterol ring structure
    (during the course you should note differences and similarities                                    between cholesterol, bile acids, cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D )
  17. differences between polar (water-soluble; hydrophilic) and non-polar compounds (lipid soluble; hydrophobic)
  18. Enzyme reactions: substrate, binding affinity, reactant, precursor, product, Km, Vmax
  19. Hormone, ligand, receptor
  20. Cell differentiation, mitogen, mitogenesis
  21. in vivo, in vitro
  22. Cell orientation:
    basal, apical
  23. Organelles and major function of each:
    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    peroxisome
    plasma membrane
    mitochondria
    nucleus 
    Golgi
    lysosome
    endocytic vacuole
    ER lumen
  24. Kinase, phosphatase, phosphorylation, dephosphorylation
  25. Allosteric vs. covalent modification of a protein
  26. Active vs. passive transport

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