Neuro week 7 Review

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BryanHimmel
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165666
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Neuro week 7 Review
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2012-08-11 12:48:07
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Neuro week 7 Review
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  1. What are the 3 longitudinal blood vessels that run the length of the spinal cord, supplying blood to it?
    • Anterior spinal artery
    • Posterior spinal arteries (2)
  2. From where does the anterior spinal artery arise?
    What shape does it form, and at what level?
    Where does it descend?
    • The vertebral arteries
    • "Y" shape, at the level of the medulla
    • Along the ventral/anterior surface of the cord at the midline
  3. From where do the posterior cerebral arteries arise?
    Where are they located?
    • Vertebral arteries or the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
    • Run inferiorly/caudally on the posterolateral surface of the spinal cord
  4. What is the function of the Radicular arteries?
    Supplemental blood supply of the spinal cord
  5. Name the 6 longitudinal interconnecting venous channels which drain the spinal cord.

    Into what structure do these vessels drain?
    • Ant. spinal veins
    • Post. spinal veins
    • Anterolateral veins
    • Posterolateral veins
    • Ant. radicular veins
    • Post. radicular veins

    Internal vertebral venous plexus
  6. Describe the flow of the venous drainage of the spinal cord
    Anterior and Posterior Veins (ant/post spinal & ant/posterolateral veins) drain into the Radicular (ant/post) veins, which drains into the Internal vertebral venous plexus
  7. What are the two main arteries which supply the brain?
    • L&R internal carotid arteries
    • L&R vertebral arteries
  8. Which arteries form the circle of willis?
    • L&R internal carotid arteries
    • L&R vertebral arteries
  9. What arteries do the internal carotid arteries bifurcate into, and what areas do these arteries supply blood to?
    • Anterior cereballar arteries:  supplies medial surface of the hemispheres
    • Middle cerebellar arteries:  Supplies most of the lateral surface of the hemispheres
  10. What connects the two anterior cerebellar arteries?
    Anterior communicating artery
  11. What arteries do the middle cerebellar arteries give rise to, and to what areas do these arteries supply blood?
    What is the clinical significance of these arteries?
    • Striate arteries:  internal capsule with its descending motor tracts
    • Common site of occlusion resulting in CVA (known as "arteries of stroke")
  12. What artery connects the middle cerebellar and posterior cerebellar arteries?
    Posterior communicating arteries
  13. What arteries do the R&L vertebral arteries give rise to?
    Of these arteries, which is formed by the vertebral arteries joining together?
    • Anterior & Posterior Spinal arteries
    • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar arteries
    • Basilar artery (formed by L&R vertebral arteries joining together)
  14. Where does the basilar artery go and what arteries does it bifurcate into?
    Passes superiorly to the pons where it bifurcates into the posterior cerebral arteries
  15. What do the posterior cerebral arteries supply blood to?
    Posterior aspect of the cerebral hemispheres
  16. What is the clinical significance of the Circle of Willis?
    In the event of an occlusion, blood can pass around in the other direction to supply blood to the area which would otherwise be debrived (collateral circulation)
  17. What blood vessels does the circle of willis connect?
    The branches of the L&R internal carotid arteries, and the branches of the L&R vertebral arteries
  18. What do occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery result in?
    • Prosopagnosia (face blindness)
    • Horner's syndrome
  19. What do occlusions of the middle cerebral artery result in?
    • Aphasia
    • Contralateral neglect syndrome
    • Homonymous hemianopia
    • Quadrantoanopia
  20. Where are the superficial cerebral veins located?
    Subarachnoid space
  21. What does the superior cerebral vein drain?
    Where does it drain to?
    • Primarily drains lateral surface of cerebral hemispheres
    • Drains into the superior sagittal sinus
  22. Where is the superficial middle cerebral vein located?
    What does it empty into?
    • Runs along the line of the lateral fissure
    • Drains inot the cavernous sinus
  23. What does the superior (great) anastomotic vein drain into?
    Drains inot the Superior sagittal sinus
  24. What does the inferior anastomotic vein drain into?
    Transverse Sinus
  25. What is the function of the deep cerebral veins?
    drains the internal structures of the forebrain into the great cerebral vein (continuous with the straight sinus)
  26. What forms the great cerebral vein?
    Which sinus is it continuous with?
    • Internal cerebral veins
    • straight sinus
  27. What are the 7 dural venous sinuses?
    • Superior sagittal sinus
    • Inferior sagittal sinus
    • Straight Sinus
    • Confluence of the sinuses
    • Transverse sinus
    • Sigmoid sinus
    • Cavernous sinus
  28. From where does the superior sagittal sinus receive blood?
    Superior cerebral veins and superior anastamotic vein
  29. From where does the inferior sagittal sinus receive blood?
    veins of the medial aspect of the hemisphere
  30. Which vein runs into the straight sinus?
    The great cerebral vein
  31. Describe the confluence of sinuses
    Convergence of the superior sagittal and straight sinuses
  32. From where does the transverse sinus receive blood?
    With what is it continuous?
    • Laterally from the confluence of sinuses and the cavernous sinus
    • Sigmoid sinus
  33. From what does the sigmoid sinus continue?
    What vein does it join with and at what level?
    • Transverse sinus
    • Internal jugular vein, the level of the jugular foramen
  34. From where do the cavernous sinuses receive blood?
    To what does it drain?
    •  From middle cerebral vein
    • Into the internal jugular vein & transverse sinus
  35. What connects the two cavernous sinuses?
    Intercavernous sinus
  36. What is the function of the blood brain barrier?
    • Protect the brain from foreign substances in the blood that may injure the brain
    • Protects the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in the rest of the body
    • Maintains a constant environment for the brain
  37. What type of cells compose the blood brain barrier, and how do they function in protecting the brain?
    • Endothelial cells
    • They are densly packed, restricting substances from passing though the capillaries
    • A.Anterior Cerebral Artery
    • B.Anterior Communicating Artery
    • C.Anterior Spinal Artery
    • D.Basilar Artery
    • E.Middle Cerebral Artery
    • F.Posterior Cerebral Artery
    • G.Posterior Communicating Artery
    • H.Vertebral Artery
    • A.Confluence of Sinuses
    • B.Great Cerebral Vein
    • C.Inferior Sagittal Sinus
    • D.  Straight Sinus
    • E.  Superior Sagital Sinus

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